149 F.3d 148 (2nd Cir. 1998), 96-9707, Austin v. Ford Models, Inc.
|Docket Nº:||Docket No. 96-9707.|
|Citation:||149 F.3d 148|
|Party Name:||Gwendolyn O. AUSTIN, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. FORD MODELS, INC., a New York Corp., its chairpersons and officers, Marion T. Smith, individually, John Doe, individually, and Jane Doe, individually, Defendants-Appellees.|
|Case Date:||July 16, 1998|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit|
Argued Nov. 24, 1997.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Gwendolyn O. Austin, Pro Se, Newark, New Jersey.
Mary C. Mone (Christopher H. Jones, Hollyer, Brady, Smith, Troxell, Barrett, Rockett, Hines & Mone, LLP, on the brief), New York City, for Defendant-Appellee.
Before: OAKES, WALKER, Circuit Judges, and BRIEANT, District Judge. [*]
JOHN M. WALKER, JR., Circuit Judge:
Gwendolyn O. Austin, pro se, appeals from the November 27, 1996 judgment of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (Kevin Thomas Duffy, District Judge ) (1) dismissing, pursuant to Fed.R.Civ.P. 12(b)(6), Austin's first amended complaint alleging employment discrimination on the basis of race and sex, in violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VII"), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq., and employment discrimination on the basis of age, in violation of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 ("ADEA"), 29 U.S.C. § 621 et seq.; (2) dismissing as abandoned Austin's claims of libel, slander, and "thwarting" of an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC") investigation; and (3) denying Austin's motion for leave to file a second amended complaint.
We hold that the district court erred in dismissing Austin's claim of race (but not sex and age) discrimination in the payment of overtime and her claims of race and age (but not sex) discrimination in the allocation of staffing assistance. In light of the above, we also vacate the dismissal of Austin's claims of discriminatory discharge on the basis of race and age (but not sex).
Accordingly, we affirm in part, vacate in part, and remand to the district court for further proceedings.
The following facts are culled exclusively from Austin's pleadings, interpreted in the light most favorable to Austin. In September
1987, defendant-appellee Ford Models, Inc. ("Ford"), a model agency, hired Austin, a black woman born in 1940, as a credit collection manager. Although Austin had no formal job description, her duties included verifying credit on new accounts, posting cash receipts, collecting outstanding balances, reconciling disputed accounts, mailing invoices, and handling bankruptcy claims. Austin was under the direct supervision of Michael Polesky, a white man who was Ford's Vice President and Treasurer.
In 1992, a dispute arose between Austin and her supervisors over Austin's work load and salary. In June 1992, Ford transferred Austin's assistant, who had worked exclusively for Austin, to another department. As a result, Austin alleges that she had to perform unnecessary clerical work involving extra hours without additional monetary compensation, while other, non-black, employees were receiving overtime pay for their extra work. When Austin made proposals to streamline her work and thereby reduce her working hours, Ford rejected them. Instead, Polesky offered Austin the choice between receiving a 15% pay raise or having an assistant but taking a pay reduction. Austin chose the raise. Austin alleges, however, that other employees, none of whom were black, had assistants but were not asked to take a reduction in salary. In December 1993, Ford gave Austin an additional five percent raise. From July 1992 to January 1994, despite Austin's continued protests over "clerical overload" and uncompensated overtime, her job functions remained essentially unchanged. Austin characterized what happened thereafter as follows:
[i]n late January, 1994 I stopped working the extra hours, since I was not being compensated nor was I receiving any cooperation from management with respect to adjustments in my workload. As a result of Jerry Ford, Co-Chairman and Mr. Polesky's failure to make the necessary adjustments in my workload, the cash flow in the company suffered and a crisis developed. Consequently, top management became involved in making the collection calls. At this point I concluded that I was going to be scapegoated for the crisis in the department and management was going to get rid of me.
In May 1994, Ford terminated Austin.
In June 1994, Austin filed a timely charge of discrimination with the EEOC. She alleged race, sex, and age discrimination on the basis of the "unreasonable workload" she was given, the "extra hours" Ford forced her to work "without compensation," and her termination. In an affidavit filed with her EEOC complaint, Austin stated that most of her job responsibilities had been transferred to a 25 year-old white male, and that within a year and a half prior to her discharge, Ford had terminated three white female employees over 40 years of age, one of whom was replaced by a younger white man.
In July 1994, Ford issued a letter and supporting information to the EEOC responding to Austin's charges of discrimination. Ford claimed that Austin was an "at-will employee" who had been fired because she "stopped doing her job in a competent manner and the accounts receivable function substantially deteriorated." Ford also took the position that its "employees at Ms. Austin's level do not receive 'overtime' pay but are expected to perform their duties even if additional hours are sometimes required." Finally, Ford pointed out that it had 61 New York employees, of whom 45 were female, 16 were racial minorities (including three black employees), and 24 were over the age of 40.
In February 1995, the EEOC ruled that Ford had not violated either Title VII or the ADEA and concluded that Austin's discharge was "due, largely, to 'politics.' " Later in 1995, Austin brought this lawsuit naming Ford and various of Ford's top executives, including Co-President Marion T. Smith, as defendants. Austin attached several exhibits to her amended complaint, including the materials that she and Ford had submitted to the EEOC. The amended complaint alleged that defendants (1) violated Title VII; (2) violated the ADEA; (3) committed libel and slander by making false defamatory statements in response papers to the EEOC; and (4) "thwarted" the EEOC's investigation by deliberately "omi[tting] [ ] material facts" relevant to Austin's...
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