165 P.3d 168 (Ariz. 2007), CV-07-0018, Kromko v. Arizona Bd. of Regents
|Citation:||165 P.3d 168, 216 Ariz. 190|
|Opinion Judge:||OPINION HURWITZ, Justice.|
|Party Name:||John KROMKO; Rachel Wilson; Adrian Duran; Sam Brown, on their own behalf and on behalf of all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. The ARIZONA BOARD OF REGENTS, a constitutionally and legally established entity of the State of Arizona; and the State of Arizona, Defendants-Appellees.|
|Attorney:||Payson & Gattone by Paul Gattone, Tucson, Attorneys for John Kromko, Rachel Wilson, Adrian Duran, and Sam Brown., Terry Goddard, Arizona Attorney General by Mary R. O'Grady, Solicitor General, Paula S. Bickett, Chief Counsel, Civil Appeals, Bruce L. Skolnik, Assistant Attorney General, Daniel P. ...|
|Case Date:||August 09, 2007|
|Court:||Supreme Court of Arizona|
Appeal from the Superior Court of Appeals Division One No. 1 CA-CV 04-0250, Maricopa County, No. CV03-021650, Rebecca A. Albrecht, Judge
Payson & Gattone by Paul Gattone, Tucson, Attorneys for John Kromko, Rachel Wilson, Adrian Duran, and Sam Brown.
Terry Goddard, Arizona Attorney General by Mary R. O'Grady, Solicitor General, Paula S. Bickett, Chief Counsel, Civil Appeals, Bruce L. Skolnik, Assistant Attorney General, Daniel P. Schaack, Assistant Attorney General , Phoenix, Attorneys for the Arizona Board of Regents and the State of Arizona.
¶ 1 Article XI, Section 6, of the Arizona Constitution provides for a "university" 1at which "the instruction furnished shall be as nearly free as possible." This case requires us to decide whether the superior court correctly dismissed a complaint alleging that the tuition charged at Arizona's state universities for the 2003-04 academic year violated this constitutional provision.
¶ 2 The Arizona Constitution mandates "a general and uniform public school system, " including "[u]niversities." Ariz. Const. art. XI, § 1(A). The Constitution also provides for a Board of Regents to govern the universities. Id. § 2 (providing for "such governing boards for the state institutions as may be provided by law"); id.§ 5 (identifying the "regents of the university" as a governing board). The Board is comprised of the governor, id. § 5, the state superintendent of public instruction, id. § 4, and others "appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate in the manner prescribed by law, " id. § 5; see also A.R.S. § 15-1621(A) (Supp. 2006) (providing for "ten appointive members").
¶ 3 The Legislature has delegated to the Board the power to "[f]ix tuitions and fees to be charged" at the state universities. A.R.S. § 15-1626(A)(5) (Supp. 2006). The Board is also required by law to adopt rules governing the "tuition and fee setting process." A.R.S. § 15-1626(A)(6). In 1987, the Board adopted a policy requiring the consideration of a variety of factors in setting tuition, but providing that "resident student fees shall not exceed the amount required to maintain a position within the lower one-third of rates set by all other states for resident fees." Ariz. Bd. of Regents Policy Manual ("ABOR Manual") § 4-104 (1987) (amended 1988). In January 2003, the Board amended its policy to provide that "total mandatory undergraduate resident student tuition and fees shall not exceed the amount required to maintain a position at the top of the lower one-third of rates set by all other states for undergraduate resident tuition and mandatory fees at the senior public universities." Id. (2003) (amended 2006).
¶ 4 In March 2003, the Board considered a proposal by the presidents of the three state universities to raise tuition and fees for state residents by 39.1% for the 2003-04 academic year. 2The presidents claimed that such an increase was necessary in part to service the debt incurred by ongoing and future capital improvements. After a public hearing, the Board approved the requested increase.
¶ 5 Three undergraduates and one law student at the University of Arizona then filed a complaint, on behalf of themselves and a putative class of all undergraduate and graduate students, against the Board and the Legislature. 3The complaint alleged that the 2003-04 tuition increase violated Article XI, Section 6. The complaint also alleged that the Legislature had violated Article XI, Section 10, of the Arizona Constitution, which provides in part that "the legislature shall make such appropriations, to be met by taxation, as shall insure the proper maintenance of all state educational institutions." The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief, as well as a refund of the tuition increase.
¶ 6 The superior court dismissed the claims against the Board and the Legislature, finding both absolutely immune from suit under A.R.S. § 12-820.01(A) (2003). The court of appeals reversed in part and affirmed in part. Kromko v. Ariz. Bd. of Regents, 213 Ariz. 607, 146 P.3d 1016 (App. 2006). The court unanimously agreed that the Legislature is absolutely immune for its appropriations decisions. Id. at 613 ¶ ¶ 21-23, 146 P.3d at 1022. A majority of the panel held, however, that § 12-820.01(A) does not immunize the Board from suit for equitable and declaratory relief, id. at 614-15 ¶ ¶ 29-36, 146 P.3d at 1023-24, or from suit for restitution of unconstitutionally collected tuition, id. at 615 ¶ ¶ 37-38, 146 P.3d at 1024. The majority further held that the students' complaint stated a claim upon which relief could be granted. Id. at 615-16 ¶ 39, 146 P.3d at 1024-25.
¶ 7 Concurring in part and dissenting in part, Judge Irvine agreed that the Legislature was immune from suit. Id. at 616 ¶ 41, 146 P.3d at 1025. He concluded, however, that the students' claim against the Board was properly dismissed because "setting tuition" is "a political question that is not suitable for judicial resolution." Id. ¶ 43, 146 P.3d 1016.
¶ 8 The Board petitioned for review; we granted the petition because this case involves issues of obvious statewide importance. See ARCAP 23(c)(3)...
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