201 F.3d 883 (7th Cir. 2000), 99-2215, Mead Johnson & Co. v. Abbott Laboratories
|Citation:||201 F.3d 883|
|Party Name:||Mead Johnson & Company, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Abbott Laboratories, Defendant-Appellant.|
|Case Date:||January 05, 2000|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit|
Argued November 9, 1999
Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana, Evansville Division. No. EV 98-131-C H/H--David F. Hamilton, Judge.
Before Bauer, Easterbrook, and Kanne, Circuit Judges.
Easterbrook, Circuit Judge.
"1st Choice of Doctors", in a blue ribbon on a product's packaging, conveys the message that more physicians prefer this product than any of its rivals. Does (must?) this phrase mean something more--for example, that a majority of all physicians prefer the product, or that the preference is strong or based on particular grounds? The phrase appears on the packaging of Similacþ, an infant formula made by the Ross Pediatrics division of Abbott Laboratories. More than a score of surveys show that pediatricians prefer Similac over Enfamilþ, the second-place formula (made by Mead Johnson), with all other
competitors far behind. Many of these surveys show that Similac attracts majority support; most show that two physicians prefer Similac for every one who chooses Enfamil. But the district court nonetheless held that "1st Choice of Doctors" violates sec.43(a)(1) of the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. sec.1125(a)(1), because it implies to consumers that a majority of physicians strongly prefer the product for strictly professional reasons. 41 F.Supp.2d 879 (S.D. Ind. 1999). All of the surveys that show majority support are inadequate, the judge concluded, because they were designed to elicit either weak preferences or those based on grounds other than medical judgment about quality. Other surveys, designed to eliminate slight or non-medical preferences, show that Similac enjoys only plurality support among physicians. A regular 2-to-1 margin is not enough to permit Abbott to make the "1st Choice" claim, the court held, and issued a preliminary injunction. In politics this would be a landslide: Bill Clinton was the "1st Choice of Voters" at the 1992 and 1996 Presidential elections even though he received less than half of the popular vote (43% in 1992, 49% in 1996). But in marketing, according to the district court, a product must have majority support to be "first."
In English, "first" is ordinal. It denotes rank in a series. A runner who crosses the finish line ahead of all others is "first" even if the race is slow and ends in a photo finish. A TV series ranks first in its time slot if it has a larger audience than any other series, even though there are so many networks, independent stations, and cable channels that no sitcom or drama attracts an absolute majority of viewers. A political candidate who receives more votes than the next- most-popular candidate finishes first, and for most offices a first-place finish is enough for election. Similac therefore is the "1st Choice of Doctors" according to ordinary usage. Perhaps a truthful claim of this kind could be misleading, and therefore actionable under sec.43(a)(1), if both absolute and relative levels of preference were small. Suppose 1.1% of pediatricians preferred Similac, 1% preferred Enfamil, 0.9% preferred some other formula, and 97% thought that all of the infant formulas were functionally identical. But absolute and relative preferences for Similac are substantial. Even if, like the district court, we throw out the surveys finding that a majority of medical professionals recommend Similac, the remaining surveys find that between 25% and 48% of those questioned rank Similac first, while Enfamil is the preference of between 10% and 40% of the respondents and never beats Similac. Surveys designed to elicit weaker preferences show that Similac receives between 51% and 64% support and Enfamil from 29% to 37%, so the roughly two-to-one ratio is not sensitive to methodology. Pediatricians may believe (as Abbott contends) that Similac is better tolerated by infants (i.e., less likely to induce unpleasant side effects such as gas, fussiness, and loose stools) and therefore is better in practice, even though clinical tests do not find nutritional...
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