23 F.3d 1328 (8th Cir. 1994), 93-2412, Kelly v. Bender

Docket Nº:93-2412.
Citation:23 F.3d 1328
Party Name:Michael KELLY, Plaintiff/Appellee, v. Kurtis BENDER, Individually and in his capacity as Police Officer of Des Moines; Michael R. Moody, Individually and in his capacity as Police Officer of Des Moines, Defendants/Appellants, City of Des Moines, IA, a political subdivision of the State of Iowa, Defendant.
Case Date:May 04, 1994
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

Page 1328

23 F.3d 1328 (8th Cir. 1994)

Michael KELLY, Plaintiff/Appellee,

v.

Kurtis BENDER, Individually and in his capacity as Police

Officer of Des Moines; Michael R. Moody,

Individually and in his capacity as

Police Officer of Des Moines,

Defendants/Appellants,

City of Des Moines, IA, a political subdivision of the State

of Iowa, Defendant.

No. 93-2412.

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit

May 4, 1994

Submitted Jan. 14, 1994.

Steven Lussier, Des Moines, IA, argued for appellant.

Timothy J. Walker, Des Moines, IA, argued (Timothy S. Eckley, on the brief), for appellee.

Page 1329

Before BOWMAN and WOLLMAN, Circuit Judge, and ALSOP, [*] Senior District Judge.

WOLLMAN, Circuit Judge.

Michael Kelly brought this action under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 1983 against Des Moines, Iowa, police officers Kurtis Bender and Michael Moody. Kelly alleged that defendants arrested him without probable cause and used excessive force in making the arrest in violation of his constitutional rights under the Fourth, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments. Bender and Moody sought summary judgment based on qualified immunity. The district court determined that genuine issues of material fact existed and denied their motions. We affirm in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.

I.

Kelly lived at 5513 Aurora in a ground floor apartment with sliding glass doors opening onto a porch and a 100-yard incline leading to the street. At 10:30 p.m. on January 14, 1991, Kelly was in his apartment with some friends and neighbors, including Bob Holmes, discussing gunshots that they had heard coming from the apartment complex across the street. At that time, uniformed patrol officers Bender and Moody arrived at 5415 Aurora on an unrelated matter. Holmes yelled from Kelly's porch to the officers in the street: "Are you here to arrest the asshole that's doing the shooting?" The officers responded by asking Holmes to come down and talk to them about it.

Holmes did not have any shoes on, so Kelly volunteered to go. He walked out of the sliding glass doors to his porch and down the hill. As he approached the street, Kelly asked the officers: "Are you here to arrest the asshole that's shooting off the gun?" The officers asked Kelly to come into the street so that they could talk to him. When he asked why, they ordered him into the street. Kelly responded that he had come to help and he was not trying to cause any trouble. When the officers again ordered him into the street, Kelly told them that he did not want any problems and thought he would just go home. He turned, took two steps, and started to run up the snow-covered hill.

The parties differ widely on what happened next. Kelly claims that he slipped and fell to the ground face down, whereupon the officers tackled him and, when he turned his head, Bender struck him on the forehead with a flashlight. Although he offered no resistance, the officers choked him and pushed his face into the snow and threatened while handcuffing him to break his thumb and pull his arm off.

The officers' version is that they chased Kelly, whom Moody caught and pulled to the ground. When Kelly then rolled over onto his back, raised his legs, and attempted to kick Moody, Bender pushed Kelly's head back into the snow with a flashlight. As Kelly continued to resist, Moody applied pressure to his throat in order to force Kelly onto his stomach so that he could handcuff him. It is undisputed that Kelly received a cut on his forehead that required emergency room treatment.

The officers charged Kelly with disorderly conduct, interference with official acts, resisting a police officer, assault on a police officer, and public intoxication. Following a trial on February 25, 1991, the state court judge found Kelly not guilty on all counts. Kelly then filed the present action. His complaint included the Section 1983 claim, as well as pendent state claims. Defendants moved for summary judgment, the district court denied the motion, and defendants filed this appeal.

II.

Kelly initially contends that we lack jurisdiction over this appeal. A district court's order denying a motion for summary judgment is not ordinarily a final decision and thus not usually reviewable on appeal. See 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1291. However, "a district court's denial of a claim of qualified immunity, to the extent that it turns on an issue of

Page 1330

law, is an appealable 'final decision' within the meaning of 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1291 notwithstanding the absence of a final judgment." Mitchell v. Forsyth, 472 U.S. 511, 530, 105 S.Ct. 2806, 2817, 86 L.Ed.2d 411 (1985). We have jurisdiction over this appeal because, although largely fact-based, it presents the legal question of whether Kelly raised a genuine issue of material fact regarding whether the officers' conduct violated his clearly established rights. See Wright v. South Arkansas Regional Health Center, Inc., 800 F.2d 199, 203 (8th Cir.1986). 1

  1. Unlawful Arrest

    An arresting officer is entitled to qualified immunity on an unlawful arrest...

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18 practice notes
  • 515 U.S. 304 (1995), 94-455, Johnson v. Jones
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Supreme Court
    • 12 Junio 1995
    ...Page 309 1988) (saying that appellate jurisdiction does exist); Turner v. Dammon, 848 F.2d 440, 444 (CA4 1988) (same); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (CA8 1994) (same); Burgess v. Pierce County, 918 F.2d 104, 106, and n. 3 (CA9 1990) (per curiam) (same); Austin v. Hamilton, 945 F.2d 11......
  • 211 F.3d 372 (7th Cir. 2000), 98-3003, United States v. Lawuary
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
    • 1 Mayo 2000
    ...to arrest Lawuary. See Tom v. Voida, 963 F.2d 952, 957-58 (7th Cir. 1992). Cf. Illinois v. Wardlow, 120 S.Ct. 673 (2000); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir. 1994), abrogated on other grounds, 515 U.S. 304 (1995). Therefore, the officer's subsequent retrieval and inspection of the......
  • 49 F.3d 227 (6th Cir. 1995), 94-3196, United States v. Dotson
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
    • 14 Marzo 1995
    ...officers generally no longer have mere reasonable suspicion, but probable cause to arrest" and collecting cases); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir.1994) (concluding that officers' preexisting reasonable suspicion coupled with individual's flight constituted arguable probabl......
  • Garcia v. City of St. Paul, 051010 MNDC, 09-83 (JNE/AJB)
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 8th Circuit District of Minnesota
    • 10 Mayo 2010
    ...(8th Cir. 2008) ("Evasive behavior, while not alone dispositive, is another fact supporting probable cause."); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir. 1994) ("We further conclude that the officers' preexisting reasonable suspicion coupled with [the suspect's] flight con......
  • Free signup to view additional results
18 cases
  • 515 U.S. 304 (1995), 94-455, Johnson v. Jones
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Supreme Court
    • 12 Junio 1995
    ...Page 309 1988) (saying that appellate jurisdiction does exist); Turner v. Dammon, 848 F.2d 440, 444 (CA4 1988) (same); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (CA8 1994) (same); Burgess v. Pierce County, 918 F.2d 104, 106, and n. 3 (CA9 1990) (per curiam) (same); Austin v. Hamilton, 945 F.2d 11......
  • 211 F.3d 372 (7th Cir. 2000), 98-3003, United States v. Lawuary
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
    • 1 Mayo 2000
    ...to arrest Lawuary. See Tom v. Voida, 963 F.2d 952, 957-58 (7th Cir. 1992). Cf. Illinois v. Wardlow, 120 S.Ct. 673 (2000); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir. 1994), abrogated on other grounds, 515 U.S. 304 (1995). Therefore, the officer's subsequent retrieval and inspection of the......
  • 49 F.3d 227 (6th Cir. 1995), 94-3196, United States v. Dotson
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
    • 14 Marzo 1995
    ...officers generally no longer have mere reasonable suspicion, but probable cause to arrest" and collecting cases); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir.1994) (concluding that officers' preexisting reasonable suspicion coupled with individual's flight constituted arguable probabl......
  • Garcia v. City of St. Paul, 051010 MNDC, 09-83 (JNE/AJB)
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 8th Circuit District of Minnesota
    • 10 Mayo 2010
    ...(8th Cir. 2008) ("Evasive behavior, while not alone dispositive, is another fact supporting probable cause."); Kelly v. Bender, 23 F.3d 1328, 1330 (8th Cir. 1994) ("We further conclude that the officers' preexisting reasonable suspicion coupled with [the suspect's] flight con......
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