236 U.S. 230 (1915), 456, Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of Ohio

Docket Nº:No. 456
Citation:236 U.S. 230, 35 S.Ct. 387, 59 L.Ed. 552
Party Name:Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of Ohio
Case Date:February 23, 1915
Court:United States Supreme Court
 
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236 U.S. 230 (1915)

35 S.Ct. 387, 59 L.Ed. 552

Mutual Film Corp.

v.

Industrial Commission of Ohio

No. 456

United States Supreme Court

February 23, 1915

Argued January 6, 7, 1915

APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO

Syllabus

Where provisions for censorship of moving pictures relate only to films intended for exhibition within the state and they are distributed to persons within the state for exhibition, there is no burden imposed on interstate commerce.

The doctrine of original package does not extend to moving picture films transported, delivered, and used as shown in the record in this case, although manufactured in, and brought from, another state.

Moving picture films brought from another state to be rented or sold by the consignee to exhibitors are in consumption and mingled as much as from their nature they can be with other property of the state, and subject to its otherwise valid police regulation, even before the consignee delivers to the exhibitor.

The judicial sense, supporting the common sense of this country, sustains the exercise of the police power of regulation of moving picture exhibitions.

The exhibition of moving pictures is a business, pure and simple, originated and conducted for profit like other spectacles, and not to be regarded as part of the press of the country or as organs of public opinion within the meaning of freedom of speech and publication guaranteed by the Constitution of Ohio.

This Court will not anticipate the decision of the state court as to the application of a police statute of the state to a state of facts not involved in the record of the case before it. Quaere whether moving pictures exhibited in places other than places of amusement should fall within the provisions of the censorship statute of Ohio.

While administration and legislation are distinct powers and the line that separates their exercise is not easily defined, the legislature must declare the policy of the law and fix the legal principles to control in given cases, and an administrative body may be clothed with power to ascertain facts and conditions to which such policy and principles apply.

It is impossible to exactly specify such application in every instance, and the general terms of censorship, while furnishing no exact standard

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of requirements may get precision from the sense and experience of men and become certain and useful guides in reasoning and conduct. Whether provisions in a state statute clothing a board or Congress composed of officers from that and other states with power amount to such delegation of legislative power as to render the provisions unconstitutional will not be determined by this Court in a case in which it appears that such Congress is still nonexistent.

The moving picture censorship act of Ohio of 1913 is not in violation of the federal Constitution or the Constitution of the State of Ohio either as depriving the owners of moving pictures of their property without due process of law or as a burden on interstate commerce, or as abridging freedom and liberty of speech and opinion, or as delegating legislative authority to administrative officers.

215 F. 138 affirmed.

Appeal from an order denying appellant, herein designated complainant, an interlocutory injunction sought to restrain the enforcement of an act of the General Assembly of Ohio passed April 16, 1913 (103 Ohio Laws 399), creating under the authority and superintendence of the Industrial Commission of the state a board of censors of motion picture films. The motion was presented to three judges, upon the bill, supporting affidavits, and some oral testimony.

The bill is quite voluminous. It makes the following attacks upon the Ohio statute: (1) the statute is in violation of §§ 5, 16 and 19 of Article 1 of the constitution of the state in that it deprives complainant of a remedy by due process of law by placing it in the power of the board of censors to determine from standards fixed by itself what films conform to the statute, and thereby deprives complainant of a judicial determination of a violation of the law; (2) the statute is in violation of Articles I and XIV of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States, and of § 11 of Article 1 of the Constitution of Ohio in that it restrains complainant and other persons from freely writing and publishing their sentiments; (3) it attempts to give the board of censors [35 S.Ct. 388] legislative power,

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which is vested only in the general assembly of the state, subject to a referendum vote of the people, in that it gives to the board the power to determine the application of the statute without fixing any standard by which the board shall be guided in its determination, and places it in the power of the board, acting with similar boards in other states, to reject, upon any whim or caprice, any film which may be presented, and power to determine the legal status of the foreign board or boards, in conjunction with which it is empowered to act.

The business of the complainant and the description, use, object, and effect of motion pictures and other films contained in the bill, stated narratively, are as follows: complainant is engaged in the business of purchasing, selling, and leasing films, the films being produced in other states than Ohio, and in European and other foreign countries. The film consists of a series of instantaneous photographs or positive prints of action upon the stage or in the open. By being projected upon a screen with great rapidity, there appears to the eye an illusion of motion. They depict dramatizations of standard novels, exhibiting many subjects of scientific interest, the properties of matter, the growth of the various forms of animal and plant life, and explorations and travels; also events of historical and current interest -- the same events which are described in words and by photographs in newspapers, weekly periodicals, magazines, and other publications, of which photographs are promptly secured a few days after the events which they depict happen, thus regularly furnishing and publishing news through the medium of motion pictures under the name of "Mutual Weekly." Nothing is depicted of a harmful or immoral character.

The complainant is selling and has sold during the past year for exhibition in Ohio an average of fifty-six positive prints of films per week to film exchanges doing business in that state, the average value thereof being the sum of

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$100, aggregating $6,000 per week, or $300,000 per annum.

In addition to selling films in Ohio, complainant has a film exchange in Detroit, Michigan, from which it rents or leases large quantities to exhibitors in the latter state and in Ohio. The business of that exchange and those in Ohio is to purchase films from complainant and other manufacturers of films and rent them to exhibitors for short periods at stated weekly rentals. The amount of rentals depends upon the number of...

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