263 F.2d 28 (9th Cir. 1959), 16074, Title v. United States

Docket Nº:16074.
Citation:263 F.2d 28
Party Name:Sam TITLE, aka Sam Teitelman, Appellant, v. UNITED STATES of America, Appellee.
Case Date:January 06, 1959
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

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263 F.2d 28 (9th Cir. 1959)

Sam TITLE, aka Sam Teitelman, Appellant,

v.

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee.

No. 16074.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit.

January 6, 1959

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Seymour Mandel, Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles, Cal., for appellant.

Laughlin E. Waters, U.S. Atty., James R. Dooley, Richard A. Lavine, Asst. U.S. Atty., Los Angeles, Cal., for appellee.

Before BARNES, HAMLEY and JERTBERG, Circuit Judges.

BARNES, Circuit Judge.

On October 24, 1941, Sam Title received his naturalization certificate as a United States citizen.

On October 21, 1954, the United States filed a complaint in the court below seeking to revoke and set aside the order admitting appellant to citizenship, and to cancel his certificate of naturalization. 1 No affidavit showing good cause was filed with the complaint nor was one thereafter made a part of the record. Appellant attacked the court's jurisdiction because of the absence of the affidavit in a motion to dismiss the complaint, and in his answer. The district court ruled against appellant on this jurisdictional issue, and on July 12, 1955, entered judgment against appellant, revoking the order admitting him to citizenship and cancelling his certificate of naturalization. 2

On September 8, 1955, appellant filed a Notice of Appeal from the denaturalization judgment. On February 27, 1956, this Court issued its mandate ordering the appeal dismissed 'for failure of appellant to prosecute the appeal.' This Court's mandate was filed and spread upon the records of the district court on February 29, 1956.

The Supreme Court, on April 30, 1956, decided United States v. Zucca, 351 U.S. 91, 76 S.Ct. 671, 100 L.Ed. 964, and on April 7, 1958, the Supreme Court decided the Matles, Lucchese, and Costello cases 3 holding that the affidavit 'must be filed with the complaint when the proceedings are instituted.' 356 U.S. at page 257, 78 S.Ct. at page 714.

On May 22, 1958, appellant moved the court below to set aside and vacate the denaturalization judgment entered on July 12, 1955, on the ground that the judgment was void in that the required affidavit showing good cause was never filed and that it was no longer equitable that the judgment should have prospective

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application. On May 26, 1958, appellant also moved the district court to dismiss appellee's complaint on the ground that the court had no jurisdiction over the subject matter. On June 19, 1958, the court below entered an order denying appellant's motions. The instant appeal is taken from that order, and is timely.

There can be no question but that the filing of such an affidavit is a prerequisite to maintenance of the suit. That is the only question passed upon in the Zucca case. But the Zucca case describes it as 'a procedural prerequisite.' 351 U.S. at page 95, 76 S.Ct. at page 674. And in quoting from Bindczyck v. Finucane, 1951, 342 U.S. 76, 72 S.Ct. 130, 96 L.Ed. 100, the Zucca decision first refers to 340(a) of the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952 as a statute setting up 'a clearly defined procedure, ' and, secondly as a statute setting up 'a detailed, safeguarded procedure for attacking the decree.' 351 U.S. at page 99, 76 S.Ct. at page 676. And in summary, the Chief Justice refers to the affidavit as 'a procedural prerequisite to the maintenance of proceedings.'

Nothing in the per curiam opinion of the Supreme Court in Matles v. United States, supra, 4 adds clarification to what was said in Zucca. Appellant seeks to render the judgment void by interpreting the word 'prerequisite' as though standing alone, and totally disregards the modifying adjective 'procedural.' We must assume that there was a purpose in the Chief Justice's reference to a 'procedural' prerequisite rather than a 'jurisdictional' prerequisite.

But there is a further and stronger reason why the order denying plaintiff's motion must be affirmed. As the government urges:

'Even if the affidavit requirement be regarded as jurisdictional in the sense that suit could not be maintained without it, the ruling of the District Court that it had jurisdiction is not of the sort to render its judgment void, and thus subject to attack under Rule 60(b)(4), Federal...

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