287 F.3d 673 (8th Cir. 2002), 01-2006, Darby v. Bratch
|Citation:||287 F.3d 673|
|Party Name:||Darby v. Bratch|
|Case Date:||April 11, 2002|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit|
Submitted: Jan. 17, 2002.
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[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Dennis E. Egan, Kansas City, MO, for appellant.
Bryan E. Round, Kansas City, MO, for appellee.
Before WOLLMAN, 1 Chief Judge, RICHARD S. ARNOLD and HANSEN, 2 Circuit Judges.
RICHARD S. ARNOLD, Circuit Judge.
Susan Darby brought this action alleging that the defendants, the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department, the Kansas City Board of Police Commissioners, the City of Kansas City, Missouri, and several individual employees, 3 violated the Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C.§ 12112(a), and the Missouri Human Rights Act, Mo.Rev.Stat. § 213.055 (2000). She also claimed that the defendants retaliated against her in violation of the Family and Medical Leave Act, 29 U.S.C. § 2601 et seq. In addition, the plaintiff brought claims for breach of her employment contract and violation of her constitutional rights, contrary to 42 U.S.C. § 1983. The defendants moved for summary judgment, and this motion was granted by the District Court. Ms. Darby appeals from the order of the District Court.
Specifically, Ms. Darby presents four major arguments on appeal: 4 first, that the District Court incorrectly determined that the defendant, the Kansas City Board of Police Commissioners, was immune from suit pursuant to the Eleventh Amendment; second, that the Court incorrectly held that plaintiff failed to establish a prima facie case of retaliation under the Family and Medical Leave Act; third, that the Court erred in determining that plaintiff failed to establish a prima facie case of disability discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act; and fourth, that the Court failed to apply the Missouri Human Rights Act to disability discrimination in the area of employment. We affirm in part and reverse in part. We hold that the Kansas City Board of Police Commissioners is not immune from suit under the Eleventh Amendment, and that, on the present state of the record, triable issues of fact were presented under the Family and Medical Leave Act. In addition, we
hold that the Missouri Human Rights Act does apply to disability discrimination in the area of employment, but we affirm the judgment on that claim on other grounds. We also affirm as to the claim under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
In 1993, Ms. Darby began working for the Kansas City Police Department (KCPD) as a dispatcher in the communications unit. In 1994, she began experiencing symptoms of thyroid disease, including migraine headaches, heavy menstrual bleeding, weakness from loss of blood, difficulty concentrating, chills, digestive problems, trouble sleeping, bloating, extreme fatigue, difficulty breathing, increased heart rate, and anxiety. Ms. Darby was diagnosed with Graves's disease, a form of hyperthyroidism.
In March 1998, Ms. Darby applied for a transfer to the police academy. One of her supervisors, Captain Doug Weishar, advised Ms. Darby that he would approve this transfer if her use of sick leave decreased over the next six months. Soon after this agreement was made, Captain Weishar was replaced by Captain Rosilyn Allen. Captain Allen knew of the agreement between Ms. Darby and Captain Weishar, and indicated that she would honor it. Both were aware of Ms. Darby's diagnosis of Graves's disease. Between January 1998 and May 1998, Ms. Darby missed ten days and one hour of work due to her thyroid disease. On May 18, 1998, Captain Allen "disapproved" Ms. Darby's transfer request and passed the request on to her superiors, noting that "the monitoring of Dispatcher Darby's work attendance will continue ...." Appellant's Appendix (App.) 289. Ms. Darby's thyroid disease continued to hinder her ability to attend work regularly.
Ms. Darby met with Captain Allen and Captain Terrie Hagedorn to discuss an improper helicopter "ride-along" on September 18, 1998. In a "ride-along," an employee rides in a helicopter along with the pilot in order to observe the job the pilot is doing. This can be a regular part of training. The defendants, however, contend that the ride-along was improper because Ms. Darby did not obtain advance permission for it. The plaintiff's position is that the policy requiring advance permission did not apply to the portion of the Police Department in which she worked. The policy as written, App. 203, appears to support plaintiff's position. At the meeting with Captain Allen and Captain Hagedorn, Ms. Darby was advised that continued absences from work would not be tolerated. Ms. Darby was also informed that she was being transferred to a new shift with a different zone assignment. 5 During the meeting, Ms. Darby stated that she thought a transfer was discriminatory. According to Ms. Darby's testimony, Captain Allen responded, "I can show you discrimination." App. 291. The record indicates that Captain Allen knew of Ms. Darby's intention to use FMLA leave prior to this meeting.
On October 9, 1998, Ms. Darby applied for Family and Medical Leave Act leave. She met with Supervisors Hoskins and Hagedorn to discuss her request. At this time, she was presented with an amended mid-year evaluation that included a reference to an excessive use of sick time. As stated by the District Court, it is "[u]ncontroverted in the record ... that Allen instructed Hagedorn to amend the mid-year evaluation for Darby to include a reference to Darby's absences due to her use of sick
time." App. 292. These instructions were allegedly based on the attendance policy at the KCPD, Policy 98-2. However, because the attendance policy did not permit an employee to be disciplined for the use of sick leave, but did allow an employee to be disciplined for the use of unpaid leave, Supervisor Hagedorn recommended that Ms. Darby be terminated for her use of unpaid leave. According to the defendants, Ms. Darby was also presented with two...
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