290 F.3d 768 (6th Cir. 2002), 00-6267, Conwood Co., L.P. v. U.S. Tobacco Co.
|Citation:||290 F.3d 768|
|Party Name:||Conwood Co., L.P. v. U.S. Tobacco Co.|
|Case Date:||May 15, 2002|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit|
Argued: Nov. 27, 2001.
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L. Clifford Craig (briefed), Taft, Stettinius & Hollister, Cincinnati, OH, Richard C. Roberts (briefed), Whitlow, Roberts, Houston & Straub, Paducah, KY, Neil M. Gorsuch (briefed), Mark C. Hansen (argued and briefed), Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd & Evans, Washington, DC, for Plaintiffs-Appellees.
Neal R. Stoll (briefed), James A. Keyte (briefed), Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, New York, NY, John S. Reed (briefed), Ridley M. Sandidge, Jr. (briefed), Lynn K. Fieldhouse (briefed), Reed, Weitkamp, Schell & Vice, Louisville, KY, Ernest Gellhorn (argued and briefed), Law Office of Ernest Gellhorn, Washington, DC, for Defendants-Appellants.
John D. Harkrider, Axinn, Veltrop & Harkrider, New York, NY, for Amicus Curiae.
Before: CLAY and GILMAN, Circuit Judges; EDGAR, Chief District Judge.[*]
CLAY, Circuit Judge.
Defendants-Appellants, United States Tobacco Company, United States Tobacco Sales and Marketing Company, Inc., United States Tobacco Manufacturing Company, Inc., and UST, Inc. (herein collectively referred to as "USTC") appeal from the March 29, 2000 order, after trial by jury, entering judgment in favor of Plaintiffs, Conwood Company, L.P. and Conwood Sales Company, L.P. ("Conwood") for Defendants' violations of the Sherman AntiTrust Act, 15 U.S.C. 2. Conwood alleged that USTC violated the Act by using its monopoly position to exclude competitors from the moist snuff market. We AFFIRM.
On April 22, 1998, Conwood filed an eight-count complaint against USTC alleging
the following causes of action: (1) Unlawful Monopolization, in violation of 2 of the Sherman Act; (2) Violations of 43(a) of the Lanham Act; (3) Tortious Interference with contract; (4) Tortious Interference with prospective advantage; (5) Violations of the Kentucky Revised Statute, 365.050; (6) Product Defamation; (7) Unjust Enrichment; and (8) Conversion/Trover. USTC filed counterclaims for conversion and violations of the Lanham Act and Sherman Act,
In November 1999, USTC moved for summary judgment as to Conwood's federal claims and dismissal without prejudice as to the pendent state law claims. USTC also filed a motion in limine to exclude the testimony of Conwood's expert witness, Dr. Richard Leftwich, and moved separately to exclude Leftwich's damages study and future testimony during trial. The district court denied USTC's summary judgment motion on February 17, 2000. On February 23, 2000, the district court also denied USTC's motions with respect to Leftwich.
In February 2000, the case proceeded to trial. Before the case went to the jury, Conwood agreed to dismiss the state law claims and both parties agreed to dismiss their respective Lanham Act claims asserted against one another. The jury deliberated for four hours, returning a $350 million verdict in favor of Conwood. The district court entered judgment on March 29, 2000, and therein trebled the amount of the award to $1.05 billion, pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 15(a). The jury also ruled in favor of Conwood on USTC's conversion and Sherman Act claims.
Conwood moved for a permanent injunction, pursuant to 15 U.S.C. 26, to prevent USTC from, among other things, removing or eliminating any competitors' advertising material in retail stores, without the prior consent of the retailer. The district court granted the motion on August 10, 2000. USTC moved for judgment as a matter of law, or for a new trial or reduction in damages, arguing that its conduct was not exclusionary, competition was not harmed and that Conwood had not established causation and damages. The district court denied the motion on August 10, 2000. On September 11, 2000, USTC filed this timely notice of appeal challenging the district court's (1) February 17, 2000 denial of its motion for summary judgment; (2) February 23, 2000 order denying its motion to exclude the damages study and testimony of Leftwich; (3) March 29, 2000 judgment on the jury verdict; (4) August 10, 2000 order denying its motion for judgment as a matter of law, or in the alternative for a new trial or reduction of damages; and (5) August 10, 2000 order granting Conwood's motion for permanent injunctive relief.
Both Conwood and USTC are manufacturers of moist snuff, a finely chopped smokeless tobacco that the user consumes by placing a small amount between the gum and cheek. The product is sold in small round cans, at a price of between $1.50 and $3. USTC produces the industry staples "Skoal" and "Copenhagen." Conwood's brands include "Kodiak" and "Cougar."
USTC's predecessor, Duke Trust, started the moist snuff industry in 1822, with its Copenhagen brand. In 1911, a judicial decree broke up the Duke Trust monopoly, which spawned three companies: American Snuff Company (Conwood's predecessor); USTC; and "Helme" (which is now known as Swisher International Group, "hereinafter, "Swisher"). American Snuff Company changed its name to Conwood sometime during the 1950s. Conwood and Swisher were involved for many years in the "dry snuff market. For sixty years,
USTC was the sole manufacturer of moist snuff. Swisher and Conwood entered the moist snuff market in the late 1970s. The only other competitor in the moist snuff market is Swedish Match ("Swedish"). Thus, there are only four competitors in the moist snuff market in the United States.
After Conwood, Swisher, and Swedish entered the market, USTC's market share, which at one point was virtually 100 percent, declined. By 1990, the four manufacturers sold 28 different brands of moist snuff and USTC's market share was approximately 87 percent. During the 1990s, market growth accelerated in the moist snuff industry, and USTC's market share continued to drop. At trial, one of Conwood's expert witnesses, Morton Kamien, a professor at Northwestern University's Kellogg Graduate School of Business, testified that USTC currently controls 77 percent of the moist snuff market; Conwood controls approximately 13 ½ percent of the market and Swedish and Swisher comprise approximately 6 percent and 4 percent of the market, respectively.
In 1999, total moist snuff sales amounted to $1.68 billion. Also, in 1999, USTC earned approximately $813 million in revenues before taxes, interest and amortization. The company has the highest profit margin of any public company in the country. Kamien testified that because USTC is one of the most profitable companies in the country, and because of the amount of profit at stake in the moist snuff market, it "would be a ripe opportunity for other firms to come in and try to get into the market. . . ." However, there have been no new entrants in the market since 1990. In addition, although USTC declined in market share about 1 percent per year between 1979 and 1999, Kamien testified that had there been true competition in the moist snuff industry, the decline would have gone much faster. He found it remarkable that while USTC's market share decreased, the company raised its prices. Testimony revealed that USTC had raised its prices approximately 8 to 10 percent per year between 1979 and 1998.
The Importance of In-store Advertising
Moist snuff is generally sold from racks. The racks have gravity fed slots or facings, from which consumers may select a can of the product. Each facing is filled with cans of a single brand of moist snuff. In addition to dispensing cans, the racks also provide "point of sale" ("POS") advertising, generally carried out by a "header card"a cardboard sign attached to the front of the rack. The header card may contain such information as the name of the brand of moist snuff, any promotions running with the product, and a picture of the product.
The parties agree that POS in-store advertising is critical in the moist snuff industry because unlike with other products, such as soft drinks or snacks, tobacco advertising is restricted. Tobacco products cannot be advertised on TV or radio, and some places have restrictions on other forms of advertising outside of a retail store, such as on billboards. Further, the number of people who use smokeless tobacco products is relatively small in relation to those who consume other tobacco products. Thus, according to Harold Price, Swedish's vice president of sales and marketing, the point at which the buyer makes his purchase decision is the optimal time to convince the buyer to purchase a particular brand of moist snuff. Price testified that the "single most important" tool for advertising is the merchandise rack, "because that's where we have the greatest opportunity and the last point to reach the consumer before [the consumer] makes [his or her] purchase decision."
Exclusive Racks, Category Management and CAP
Conwood showed at trial that beginning in 1990, USTC pursued strategies, emanating from high-level management, to exclude competition in the moist snuff market.
According to trial testimony, USTC had been able to convince "a number of major retailers" to allow it to have "exclusive racks" in their stores. An "exclusive rack" refers to one manufacturer supplying a rack to display its moist snuff products and those of all other manufacturers. Kroger's Steven Luckett testified that...
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