298 F.Supp. 795 (C.D.Cal. 1969), Civ. 68-1543, Imbler v. Craven
|Docket Nº:||Civ. 68-1543|
|Citation:||298 F.Supp. 795|
|Party Name:||Imbler v. Craven|
|Case Date:||April 23, 1969|
|Court:||United States District Courts, 9th Circuit, Central District of California|
Roger S. Hanson, Woodland Hills, Cal., for petitioner.
Thomas C. Lynch, Atty. Gen., Thomas S. Kerrigan, Deputy Atty. Gen., Los Angeles, Cal., for respondent.
FERGUSON, District Judge.
Petitioner, a California state prisoner, seeks a writ of habeas corpus under 28 U.S.C. § 2254, challenging the validity of
a judgment of conviction in two counts entered in the Superior Court in Los Angeles on August 10, 1961. The first count charged murder in the first degree, for which the jury fixed the penalty at death; in addition, petitioner was sentenced to a term of imprisonment not to exceed ten years on count two, assault with a deadly weapon with intent to commit murder. The judgment was affirmed by the California Supreme Court on automatic appeal (Calif.Pen.Code § 1239(b)). People v. Imbler, 57 Cal.2d 711, 21 Cal.Rptr. 568, 371 F.2d 304 (1962). Thereafter, petitioner sought a writ of habeas corpus in the California Supreme Court. The writ was denied on the basis of a referee's findings following an evidentiary hearing. In re Imbler, 60 Cal.2d 554, 35 Cal.Rptr. 293, 387 P.2d 6 (1963), cert. denied, 379 U.S. 908, 85 S.Ct. 196, 13 L.Ed.2d 181 (1964).
Petitioner then filed a second petition for a writ of habeas corpus in the state courts challenging solely the penalty of death. During the penalty phase of petitioner's trial, the prosecution stated to the jury that life imprisonment, because of the possibility of parole, did not necessarily mean permanent incarceration. The trial court instructed the jury that it could consider the possibility of parole after seven years' imprisonment in determining the penalty. Holding these statements and instructions to be improper, the California Supreme Court reversed the judgment imposing the death penalty. In re Imbler, 61 Cal.2d 556, 35 Cal.Rptr. 293, 387 P.2d 6 (1964). On remand, petitioner was sentenced to life imprisonment on the murder count.
The federal petition was originally heard in the Eastern District of California. The District Court there denied the petition, holding it to be premature under McNally v. Hill, 293 U.S. 131, 55 S.Ct. 24, 79 L.Ed. 238 (1931), since petitioner was also serving concurrent sentences under independent convictions not then being challenged. The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reversed the denial following the United States Supreme Court's overruling of McNally v. Hill, supra, in Peyton v. Rowe, 391 U.S. 54, 88 S.Ct. 1549, 20 L.Ed.2d 426 (1968). Imbler v. Oliver, 397 F.2d 277 (9th Cir. 1968). Thereafter, the case was transferred to this District pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 2241(d).
The petition for a writ of habeas corpus is conditionally granted for the reasons set forth herein.
A federal evidentiary hearing on petitioner's claims was not held since the same contentions were presented in the writ of habeas corpus before the California Supreme Court. A referee appointed by that court conducted a full and adequate hearing, and since there is no major dispute as to the basic facts, this court need not conduct a further hearing. Townsend v. Sain, 372 U.S. 293, 318, 83 S.Ct. 745, 9 L.Ed.2d 770 (1963); Jackson v. California, 336 F.2d 521, 522 (9th Cir. 1964).
The complete reporters' transcripts of petitioner's trial and of the state habeas corpus hearing, as well as the referee's report thereon, are part of the record herein and have been fully considered by this court.
About 8:30 on the evening of January 4, 1961, two men entered a Los Angeles grocery store owned by Morris Hasson. Mr. Hasson was, at the time, kneeling behind the counter. His wife, then also in the store, approached the apparent customers; by that time, Mr. Hasson had risen with a peculiar look on his face by which, his wife testified, she knew something was wrong. When she started to question him, she observed a gun barrel protruding from the coat of one of the men. As she asked what the men wanted, the gun was fired, killing Mr. Hasson. The two men walked out of the store and headed in opposite directions, the gunman walking west.
Mrs. Hasson testified that the killer was wearing a hat and coat, and that she did not see his face and could not identify
him. She subsequently identified the accomplice as one Leonard Lingo.
There was no physical evidence whatsoever connecting petitioner with the crime. The most significant evidence was the testimony of one Alfred Costello, called by the prosecuting attorney the 'People's principal witness'.
Mr. Costello testified that about 8:30 in the evening involved he was directly across the street from the Hassons' grocery store when two men in the store, one wearing a dark coat and a 'slouched down' hat, attracted his attention. Costello stated he heard a shot and, as he walked across the street, he attempted to intercept the killer who he then noticed was holding a gun. At this point he was eight to twelve feet from the man, who then made a right-hand turn heading west. Costello identified him as petitioner. Costello testified that he followed the killer about 25 feet into an alley. The killer started to run, losing his hat. He hesitated, then entered a parking lot. Costello then yelled, 'Stop or I'll shoot'. The killer turned and fired at Costello who, standing 15-20 feet away, heard the bullet pass him and strike against a building. The killer then ran through the parking lot and finally into a third parking lot, Costello still following. Near the attendant's office of that lot, the man discarded his coat, then doubled back through the alley and toward Hassons' store. Costello temporarily lost sight of him, then spotted him again going into a Y.M.C.A. building. Thereafter, Costello returned to the parking lot to recover the coat, and discovered the gun and a razor case in a pocket.
In addition, there was testimony from one Billy Hillen, who was leaving the Hassons' store as the killer and his accomplice were entering it. The men passed within four or five feet of Hillen. Hillen testified that petitioner was one of the men, wearing a brown overcoat and green hat, and that Lingo was the other. When he was about six or seven steps outside the store, Hillen heard a shot and turned back. He stated that petitioner was by that time standing outside of the store as Costello and a man named Fritz approached. Fritz said 'jump him', but Hillen, who saw the gun, said to let him go.
The following day, Hillen recovered the hat worn by the killer.
Alonzo Dunlop, the third eyewitness, was an attendant in one of the parking lots through which the killer had run. Dunlop testified that he saw petitioner walk through his lot that night about 8:50 p.m. He said he heard no gunshots, although Costello stated the killer had fired at him in one of the adjacent parking lots. The only unusual sound he testified he did hear was the scream of Mrs. Hasson, and this only after the killer had left his lot. He further testified that he knew Costello by sight, but had not seen him in the lot that evening.
Ten days later, on January 14, 1961, petitioner, Leonard Lingo and one Jerry Mayes attempted an armed robbery of a service station in Pomona, California. Lingo died as the result of a traffic accident following the attempted robbery and Mayes was captured. Petitioner subsequently surrendered to the Pomona police.
Attempting to solve the Hasson murder case, the Los Angeles police showed Mrs. Hasson photographs of Lingo. She identified Lingo as the man who accompanied the murderer of her husband.
On January 30, 1961, prior to the trial, witnesses Costello, Hillen, Dunlop and Fritz were taken to a lineup. The lineup was conducted in four or five groups, with ten to twelve men in each group. When Hillen saw petitioner in the last group, he stated out loud, in the hearing of the other witnesses, 'That's him'. Hillen admitted making that statement, Dunlop testified as to it, and Costello also heard such a comment. Petitioner was then identified by the witnesses Nevertheless, Hillen requested to see him wearing the hat and coat recovered from the vicinity of the murder. Several of the men were required to don the clothes, although there is some dispute as to
whether any of them were similar in build to petitioner, and Hillen again identified petitioner.
Petitioner's defense was an alibi. He testified that he and three other persons, along with his girl friend for part of the evening, visited about five drinking or dancing establishments, which he either named or described, from about 5:30 p.m. until after midnight on the day the murder occurred. He was able to identify fully only two of his companions: Jerry Mayes, who also testified about those activities although he found it difficult to be certain about the exact date, and one Robert Mahon. Also in the group were a man petitioner thought was named George, in whose car the group travelled from one place to another, and petitioner's girl friend, Ann, whose last name he could not recall.
In addition, while petitioner admitted to his participation in the Pomona robbery, he denied knowing Lingo before the 14th. He testified, as did Mayes, that the first time he and Mayes met Lingo was in the early morning of the 14th, the introductions having been made by a man named Dale who was not located at the time of trial.
Subsequent to the trial, investigation produced further corroboration by new witnesses both of petitioner's alibi and of his statement with regard to his first meeting with Lingo on January 14, ten...
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