301 F.3d 907 (8th Cir. 2002), 02-1385, U.S. v. Crossland
|Citation:||301 F.3d 907|
|Party Name:||U.S. v. Crossland|
|Case Date:||August 15, 2002|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit|
Submitted: June 11, 2002.
Rehearing and Rehearing En Banc Denied Sept. 20, 2002.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Mark E. Ford, argued, Fort Smith, AR, for appellant.
Steven N. Snyder, argued, Fort Smith, AR, for appellee.
Before RILEY, BEAM, and MELLOY, Circuit Judges.
BEAM, Circuit Judge.
Thomas Crossland was convicted by a jury for conspiracy to manufacture methamphetamine and possession of a listed chemical, iodine, with cause to believe it would be used to manufacture methamphetamine. The district court1 sentenced him to 240 months' imprisonment for the conspiracy conviction and 120 months on the possession conviction, to run concurrently. Crossland appeals from the district court's pretrial orders denying a motion to suppress, a renewed motion to suppress and a motion to dismiss. He also appeals his jury conviction, on the basis of insufficient evidence. Finally, he appeals his sentence, arguing that it is excessive. For the reasons set forth below, we affirm.
x'#A I. BACKGROUND
On October 13, 1998, Crossland ordered 220 pounds of iodine from Patricia Roderstorf, an international sales representative for GFS Chemical. He stated that he was doing business on behalf of Innovative Systems and GSI Incorporated. The credit application he provided to GFS reported that Innovative Systems was in the business of "pyrotechnics/fireworks." On October 23, 1998, he ordered an additional 220 pounds of iodine from Andrew Abdul, president of Dawn Scientific. He requested that the iodine from both companies be delivered to "Kerr-McGee Corporation Sequoyah Fuels Atomic Fuels Division, Fort Smith, Arkansas." Crossland told Roderstorf
that the iodine would be used by Kerr-McGee to clean out its radioactive tanks. Roderstorf attempted to locate Kerr-McGee in Fort Smith, but discovered that no Sequoyah Fuels Facility existed in that area. Knowing that iodine was on the DEA "watch list," Roderstorf contacted the DEA and provided agents with information about Crossland's order. Abdul also thought Crossland's order was suspicious, and when he contacted Kerr-McGee's headquarters, he was informed that the company had no properties in Arkansas. Abdul contacted the DEA and provided Agent Kelley with information regarding Crossland's order. Kelley attempted to locate Kerr-McGee Sequoyah Fuels, and discovered that no such business existed. Kelley also checked to see if Crossland had any prior drug offenses and found none.
The iodine from both companies was scheduled to arrive at Overnite Transportation in Muskogee, Oklahoma, on November 5, 1998, and the DEA dispatched a surveillance team to monitor its arrival. On November 5, the iodine arrived and Crossland retrieved it and drove to a self-storage unit. Agent Kelley and other state and local officers followed Crossland to the storage unit. When they arrived, Crossland was parked in front of his unit and was unloading the iodine. Kelley testified that as he approached the storage unit he could see that inside there was a barrel marked "Red Phosphorous 110 Pounds." Kelley then identified himself, told Crossland he was under investigation and read him his Miranda rights.
Crossland consented to a search of the storage unit. In the unit, the officers found the barrel, which was largely empty, red powder on the floor, a set of scales and a pair of gloves. Oklahoma law prohibited possession of red phosphorous without a permit. Oklahoma authorities seized the items in the storage unit and placed Crossland under arrest for possession of red phosphorous. That charge was eventually dismissed. Crossland also signed a consent to search his residence. When Kelley searched the residence, he found $29,000 in cash, along with documents showing that Crossland had ordered iodine and red phosphorous.
After Crossland was taken to the Muskogee County Jail, an officer advised him of his Miranda rights and asked him about the iodine and red phosphorous. Crossland told the officer that the chemicals were used to turn fireworks red. He also said that the chemicals were used to grow pecan trees. Unable to convince the officer that he was telling the truth, Crossland eventually relented and said, "wait, wait just a minute. I'll tell you the truth about it." The officer waited for Kelley and FBI Agent Caudle to arrive. When Kelley arrived, he again advised Crossland of his Miranda rights. Crossland told Kelley that the chemicals were for Roger Hughes who was using them to make methamphetamine. He said that he made a four hundred dollar profit per 110 pound barrel. Crossland then said, "I pieced it together and figured he was using it or selling it to make crank. It didn't take a rocket scientist to figure out what they were using it for. I sell fireworks but the 1700 pounds of red phosphorous were not used to make fireworks ... I guess I'm guilty for what I did but I wasn't the one making the dope."
A grand jury indicted Crossland for possession of iodine, a listed chemical, having reasonable cause to believe it...
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