308 U.S. 188 (1939), 397, United States v. Borden Company
|Docket Nº:||No. 397|
|Citation:||308 U.S. 188, 60 S.Ct. 182, 84 L.Ed. 181|
|Party Name:||United States v. Borden Company|
|Case Date:||December 04, 1939|
|Court:||United States Supreme Court|
Argued November 15, 1939
APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES
FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS
1. A judgment quashing a count upon the ground of duplicity is not appealable to this Court under the Criminal Appeals Act. P. 193.
2. The construction of an indictment by the District Court binds this Court on an appeal under the Criminal Appeals Act. P. 194.
3. A decision of the District Court holding that an indictment failed to charge an offense under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act because of the effect on that Act of later statutes, held a construction of the Sherman Act and reviewable under the Criminal Appeals Act. P. 195.
4. Repeals by implication are not favored. When there are two Acts upon the same subject, effect should be given to both if possible. P. 198.
5. The Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 does not operate to repeal the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in its application to agreements of producers, distributors and others, restricting interstate commerce in milk, when such agreements are not participated in or directed by the Secretary of Agriculture in pursuance of the former Act. Pp. 196-202.
With respect to interstate commerce in agricultural commodities or their products, an agreement made with the Secretary as a party, or an order made by him, or an arbitration award or agreement approved by him, pursuant to the authority conferred by the Agricultural Act and within the terms of the immunity described by §§ 8(b) and 3(d), would be a defense to a prosecution under the Sherman Act to the extent that the prosecution sought to penalize what was thus validly agreed upon or directed by the Secretary. Further than that the Agricultural Act does not go.
6. A license issued by the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to the marketing of milk in a given area is not a defense to an indictment under the Sherman Act for conspiracies in restraint of that commerce, alleged to have been continued after the license had expired. P. 202.
7. An order issued under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act regulating marketing of milk is not a defense to an indictment of producers, distributors and others under the Sherman Act charging conspiracies engaged in before the period covered by the order. P. 202.
8. The Capper-Volstead Act, in authorizing producers of agricultural products, including dairymen, to act together in collectively processing, preparing for market, handling and marketing their products in interstate and foreign commerce, and to have marketing agencies in common and make necessary agreements to effect these purposes, did not authorize a conspiracy of dairymen with distributors, labor officials, municipal officials, and others, to maintain artificial and noncompetitive prices to be paid to all producers for all fluid milk produced in Illinois and neighboring States and marketed in the Chicago area, which would compel independent distributors to exact a like price from their customers and would control the supply of fluid milk permitted to be brought to the city. P. 203.
9. Under § 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to determine, subject to judicial review, whether any such cooperative association monopolizes or restrains interstate trade to such an extent that the price of any agricultural product is unduly enhanced, and to issue a cease and desist order. But this qualifying procedure was not intended to replace, postpone, or prevent prosecution under § 1 of the Sherman Act for the punishment of conspiracies by producers and others such as are described in the last preceding paragraph. P. 205.
10. Where the District Court has based its decision on a particular construction of the underlying statute, the review here under the Criminal Appeals Act is confined to the question of the propriety of that construction. Distinguishing United States v. Curtiss-Wright Corp., 299 U.S. 304. P. 206.
28 F.2d 177, in part, reversed.
APPEAL from a judgment of the District Court sustaining demurrers and dismissing an indictment charging combination
and conspiracy in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. As to one of the counts, the appeal is dismissed.
HUGHES, J., lead opinion
MR. CHIEF JUSTICE HUGHES delivered the opinion of the Court.
The Government appeals from a judgment of the District Court sustaining demurrers and dismissing an indictment charging combination and conspiracy in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. 28 F.Supp. 177.
The trade and commerce alleged to be involved is the transportation to the Chicago market of fluid milk produced on dairy farms in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin and the distribution of the milk in that market. The Government divides the defendants into five groups -- (1) distributors and allied groups which include a number of corporations described as major distributors and their officers and agents, the Associated Milk Dealers, Inc., a trade association of milk distributors, and its officers and agents, and the Milk Dealers Bottle Exchange, a corporation controlled by the major distributors; (2) the Pure Milk Association, a cooperative association of milk producers incorporated in Illinois, and its officers and agents; (3) the Milk Wagon Drivers Union, Local 753, engaged in the distribution of milk in Chicago, and certain labor officials; (4) municipal officials, including the president of the Board of Health of Chicago and certain subordinate officials; (5) two persons who arbitrated a dispute between the major distributors and the Pure Milk Association, fixing the price of milk to be paid to the members of the association.
The indictment, which was filed in November, 1938, contains four counts. The several defendants challenged it by demurrers and motions to quash on various grounds. The District Court held with respect to counts one, two and four that the production and marketing of agricultural products, including milk, are removed from the purview of the Sherman Act by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937 (50 Stat. 246); also, with respect to all four counts, according to the formal terms of its judgment, that the Pure Milk Association, as an agricultural cooperative association, its officers and agents, are exempt from prosecution under § 1 of the Sherman Act by § 6 of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 17), §§ 1 and 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act (7 U.S.C. 291,
292), and the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act. With respect to count three, the District Court held that it was duplicitous in the view that it charged several separate conspiracies and also that it did not definitely charge a restraint of interstate commerce.
The judgment expressly overruled the demurrers and motions to quash so far as they challenged the constitutionality of the Sherman Act or the sufficiency of the allegations of unlawful conspiracy, and also so far as it was contended that interstate commerce was not involved in counts one, two and four. The court added that it overruled all the defendants' contentions which it had not specifically overruled or sustained. The judgment ends by dismissing the indictment as to all defendants.
The first question presented concerns our jurisdiction. The exceptional right of appeal given to the Government by the Criminal Appeals Act is strictly limited to the instances specified.1 The provision invoked here is the
one which permits review where a decision quashing or sustaining [60 S.Ct. 186] a demurrer to an indictment or any of its counts is based upon the "construction of the statute upon which the indictment is founded." The decision below was not predicated upon invalidity of the statute.
The established principles governing our review are these: (1) Appeal does not lie from a judgment which rests on the mere deficiencies of the indictment as a pleading, as distinguished from a construction of the statute which underlies the indictment. (2) Nor will an appeal lie in a case where the District Court has considered the construction of the statute but has also rested its decision upon the independent ground of a defect in pleading which is not subject to our examination. In that case, we cannot disturb the judgment, and the question of construction becomes abstract. (3) This Court must accept the construction given to the indictment by the District Court, as that is a matter we are not authorized to review. (4) When the District Court holds that the indictment, not merely because of some deficiency in pleading, but with respect to the substance of the charge, does not allege a violation of the statute upon which the indictment is founded, that is necessarily a construction of that statute. (5) When the District Court has rested its decision upon the construction of the underlying statute, this Court is not at liberty to go beyond the question of the correctness of that construction and consider other objections to the indictment. The Government's appeal does not open the whole case.
First. The first two of these principles, as the Government concedes, preclude our review of the decision below as to count three. For that count was held bad upon the independent ground that it is defective as a pleading, being duplicitous and also lacking in definiteness. United States v. Keitel, 211 U.S. 370, 397-399; United States v.
Second. After a general description of the averments of the indictment, which was explicitly founded on § 1 of the Sherman Act, the District Court construed counts one, two and four as follows:
Count 1 charges a conspiracy "to arbitrarily fix, maintain...
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