31 F.3d 1478 (9th Cir. 1994), 92-16461, Smith v. Ricks
|Docket Nº:||92-16461, 93-15586, 93-16410 and 93-17300.|
|Citation:||31 F.3d 1478|
|Party Name:||John Phillip SMITH, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. William B. RICKS, et al., Defendants-Appellees. John Phillip SMITH, Plaintiff, Jerome Berg, Esq., Appellant, v. William B. RICKS, et al., Defendants-Appellees. John Phillip SMITH, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. William B. RICKS, et al., Defendants-Appellees. John Phillip SMITH, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. William B.|
|Case Date:||August 11, 1994|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
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Argued and Submitted April 12, 1994.
Jerome Berg, San Francisco, CA, for the plaintiff-appellant.
Jerome Berg, in pro per.
Paul D. Fogel, Crosby, Heafey, Roach & May, Oakland, CA, for defendants-appellees.
Marilyn Preston, Ann Arbor, MI, for amicus curiae.
Appeals from the United States District Court for the Northern District of California.
Before: FLETCHER, FERGUSON, and TROTT, Circuit Judges.
TROTT, Circuit Judge:
Dr. John Smith, a cardiologist, was removed from the staff of Good Samaritan Hospital. After a lengthy peer review process, the reviewing doctors and the hospital concluded that Dr. Smith's performance was below acceptable standards of care and that removal from the hospital staff was necessary to ensure patient safety. Dr. Smith responded by filing a complaint in federal court alleging that the doctors and the hospital had engaged in an antitrust conspiracy against him and violated his due process rights.
The district court granted summary judgment and awarded attorneys' fees and costs in favor of defendants ("Good Samaritan"). The district court held that Good Samaritan was immune from federal antitrust liability pursuant to the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 ("HCQIA"), 42 U.S.C. Sec. 11101-52, which shields peer review participants from liability if certain review standards are met. The district court also held that Good Samaritan was entitled to reasonable attorneys' fees and cost pursuant to 42 U.S.C. Sec. 11113. Furthermore, the district court imposed $2,000 in Rule 11 sanctions against Dr. Smith's attorney, Jerome Berg. We have jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1291, and we affirm.
Dr. John Smith joined the medical staff of Good Samaritan Hospital in 1982. In early 1983, a dispute arose over Dr. Smith's prescription of terbutaline to an elderly patient. Dr. Smith allegedly prescribed an improper dosage of the drug. The patient went into cardiac arrest, and although initially resuscitated, subsequently died. The drug order was later altered to reflect a proper dosage, but Dr. Smith denied altering the order. After reviewing the case, the Quality Review
Committee ("QRC") of Good Samaritan's Division of Cardiology recommended that the hospital assign preceptors to monitor Dr. Smith for six months. Under a preceptorship, physicians concurrently review another physician's professional performance. 1
In 1985, the Division of Cardiology's QRC again recommended another preceptorship based on Dr. Smith's improper use of streptokinase, an anti-clotting drug. Dr. Smith appealed to the Medical Staff Executive Committee ("MEC"). On August 20, 1985, the MEC upheld the decision of the QRC to monitor Dr. Smith's use of streptokinase through a preceptorship. Dr. Smith did not appeal that decision.
On January 6, 1986, the California Board of Medical Quality Assurance ("BMQA") informed Good Samaritan Hospital that Dr. Smith's staff privileges at another hospital, O'Connor Hospital, had been revoked. 2 Confronted with the BMQA notice, Dr. Smith responded he had been "automatically terminated" from O'Connor because he was not able to associate himself with an "established group." Dr. Smith claimed O'Connor's criticisms of his care were "unfounded" and "only reviewed by a biased committee." In fact, the BMQA asked two independent cardiologists to examine the records of five of Dr. Smith's O'Connor patients. One consultant concluded that "Dr. Smith's treatment constituted evidence of negligence and incompetence," and the other consultant found that "review of these cases in my opinion shows a lack of overall medical judgment and care as
would be expected by a specialist in cardiovascular disease."
Good Samaritan requested that Dr. Smith provide medical records of the five O'Connor patients as part of its own 1986 biennial review of staff privileges. Despite repeated requests, Dr. Smith refused to release these records until December 1987. Four members of Good Samaritan's Division of Cardiology, each from a different practice group, then conducted separate and independent reviews. They found that Dr. Smith's use of cardiac catheterization testing was below acceptable standards of care.
On April 14, 1988, Dr. Smith met with the Cardiology Executive Committee ("CEC"). The CEC raised its concerns regarding the O'Connor patients. However, because the Good Samaritan records of Smith's patients were not as bad, the CEC eventually recommended reappointment, subject to intensive, 12-month review and monitoring of Dr. Smith's cases.
Unbeknownst to the CEC, one of Dr. Smith's Good Samaritan patients died during a cardiac catheterization procedure just six days prior to their meeting with Dr. Smith. After reviewing the latest incident, the Division of Cardiology concluded Dr. Smith's actions were illogical, his decision to conduct the catheterization was unjustified, and his technical error in performing the procedure caused the patient's death. On June 21, 1988, the CEC again met with Dr. Smith to discuss the most recent case. Based on that case and his previous problems, the CEC unanimously recommended against reappointment.
Dr. Smith then met with the MEC to review and discuss the CEC's recommendations. On August 29, 1988, Chief of Staff Dr. McCullough wrote to Smith that the MEC had unanimously decided to recommend termination of his staff privileges. 3
Dr. Smith appealed the MEC's decision. Pursuant to the Medical Staff Bylaws, Dr. Smith received a "Notice of Hearing/Notice of Charges." The charges against Dr. Smith involved: (1) the five O'Connor cardiac catheterization cases; (2) the Good Samaritan patient who died after a 1988 cardiac catheterization; (3) Dr. Smith's inadequate documentation of patient histories and physicals; (4) his use of streptokinase; and (5) his incorrect dosage of terbutaline in 1983. A Judicial Review Committee ("JRC") was convened and held nine days of hearings from April through August, 1989. Each session was transcribed by a court reporter, resulting in over 1,300 pages of transcripts. Dr. Smith was represented by Dr. Douville, a physician-spokesperson, as provided by the Bylaws. The Medical Staff was represented by two physicians. The JRC panel consisted of seven physicians--a hearing officer-chairman, five panel members, and one alternate. Attorneys for Dr. Smith, the Medical Staff, and the JRC also attended the hearings.
The JRC's counsel questioned each panel member in detail concerning possible bias against Dr. Smith (including patient referrals and financial interest in the outcome); two of the panel members ultimately recused themselves. The chairman of the JRC refused Dr. Smith's counsel's voir dire questions as irrelevant to bias or improper attempts at discovery. Dr. Smith's physician-spokesperson questioned the JRC chairman regarding potential bias.
The Medical Staff presented four witnesses. Dr. Smith's physician-spokesperson cross-examined all the witnesses. Dr. Smith introduced 22 exhibits and had access to all evidence the Medical Staff introduced against him. Dr. Smith testified on his own behalf and called one expert witness.
On October 2, 1989, the JRC found the Medical Staff presented sufficient evidence to support every charge, except for the terbutaline charge. Although the O'Connor cases evidenced Dr. Smith's lack of logic and medical judgment, the JRC gave them less weight because they occurred in 1982-83 and Dr. Smith had subsequently been monitored on numerous cases at Good Samaritan. Thus,
the JRC recommended a rigorous, two-year preceptorship instead of termination. Believing the sanction was too lenient, the Medical Staff appealed to the Good Samaritan Board of Trustees.
The Board conducted two hearings in December 1989 and January 1990. Dr. Smith submitted a written statement. Dr. Smith's counsel conducted extensive voir dire of the Board members and at least two members recused themselves. Smith's counsel objected to several other Board members, but the Board concluded those members were not biased or prejudiced. On January 20, 1990, the Board reversed the decision of the JRC. The Board found that the preceptorship was a "woefully uncertain protection for patients." According to the Board, a preceptor could not "anticipate or react quickly enough to further lapses in Dr. Smith's judgment, thought processes and...
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