316 F.2d 546 (2nd Cir. 1963), 283, Cutler v. American Federation of Musicians of United States and Canada
|Docket Nº:||283, 27946.|
|Citation:||316 F.2d 546|
|Party Name:||Ben CUTLER, Dan Terry, Ralph Flanagan, Marty Levitt, Vic Ash, Claude Garreau (d/b/a Allen Meritt), and Angie Bond, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. AMERICAN FEDERATION OF MUSICIANS OF the UNITED STATES AND CANADA and Associated Musicians of Greater New York Local 802, Defendants-Apellants.|
|Case Date:||April 30, 1963|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit|
Argued March 19, 1963.
Emanuel Dannett, New York City (McGoldrick, Dannett, Horowitz & Golub, New York City, Herbert D. Schwartzman, Eugene Mittleman, and Jerome H. Adler, New York City, Henry Kaiser and George Kaufmann, Washington, D.C., on the brief), for defendant-appellant American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada.
David I. Ashe, Ashe & Rifkin, New York City, on the brief, for defendant-appellant Associated Musicians of Greater New York, Local 802.
Godfrey P. Schmidt, New York City, for plaintiffs-appellees.
Before LUMBARD, Chief Judge, and FRIENDLY and KAUFMAN, Circuit Judges.
LUMBARD, Chief Judge.
The American Federation of Musicians of the United States and Canada and the Associated Musicians of Greater New York, Local 802 appeal from a judgment of the District Court for the Southern District of New York which permanently enjoined the defendant unions from collecting from Ben Cutler, an orchestra leader member of said Local, the 1 1/2 percent tax or the 10 percent traveling surcharge imposed respectively by the Local's by-laws and the Federation's constitution. 211 F.Supp. 433 (S.D.N.Y.1962). This appeal questions Judge Levet's holding that under § 302 of the Labor Management Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 186, the payment of the tax and surcharge by Cutler is illegal and such payment may not be demanded of Cutler by the defendant unions. We affirm. 1
The facts upon which Judge Levet based the permanent injunction are not contested on this appeal.
Cutler, a member of the defendant unions, is an orchestra leader engaged in the so-called 'single engagement' field. In other words, he leads orchestras which perform at weddings, dances, sports events and the like; these engagements always being for less than one week.
Local 802 imposes a Local Tax of 1 1/2 percent of the wage scale set by the union. 2 The union's by-laws require the leader to transmit to the local the 'Taxes' which he is to deduct from his own wages and the wages of the other orchestra members who are known as sidemen. No sideman has signed a written authorization for such a deduction. The 1 1/2 percent tax is not collected and transmitted if the orchestra performs outside of the jurisdiction of Local 802 which includes New York City, Nassau and Suffolk counties. But in such case, the leader is obligated, under the Federation's rules, to pay to the Federation an amount equal to 10 percent of the scale set by the local which has jurisdiction over the areas in which the performance is rendered. 3 The 10 percent is not deducted from the wages of the sidemen or the leader but is charged to the purchaser of the musical performance. Under the rules of Local 802 and the Federation, the leader is under no obligation to collect and pay over the 1 1/2 percent or the 10 percent unless he is a member of the union.
Each orchestra leader in the single engagement field generally plays an instrument himself. Ninety-eight percent of the performers who act as leaders on
some occasions act as sidemen on others. Cutler is one of the two percent who always act as leaders. The leader negotiates contracts with purchasers of performances. The contracts are for a lump sum and do not itemize the distribution of that sum. 4 The leader distributes an amount equal at least to the union scale to each sideman, makes the required payments to the union, and keeps the remainder for himself.
Cutler brought this action on July 20, 1962 to restrain collection of the wage tax and the 10 percent surcharge. By agreement of the parties, Judge Levet used affidavits and the record in Carroll v. Associated Musicians of Greater New York, 5 wherein Cutler was a witness, as the source of the facts in this case and issued a preliminary injunction against the unions on October 17, 1962. Following further stipulation as to the use of those sources, Judge Levet made the injunction in favor of Cutler permanent on November 14, 1962, and from that judgment the defendants appeal.
Judge Levet found that Cutler, an orchestra leader in the single engagement field, is an employer within the meaning of the statute and that as such he may not be required to pay over to the unions the taxes and surcharges here involved. We agree. Section 302 of the Labor Management Relations Act, as amended, 29 U.S.C. § 186, prohibits unions from demanding or employers from making payments to unions representing his employees unless there is a written authorization for certain deductions from wages, and reads in pertinent part as follows:
'(a) It shall...
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