323 U.S. 471 (1945), 102, Williams v. Kaiser
|Docket Nº:||No. 102|
|Citation:||323 U.S. 471, 65 S.Ct. 363, 89 L.Ed. 398|
|Party Name:||Williams v. Kaiser|
|Case Date:||January 08, 1945|
|Court:||United States Supreme Court|
Argued December 12, 1944
CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT OF MISSOURI
In a petition to the Supreme Court of Missouri for a writ of habeas corpus, the petitioner, confined in a state penitentiary under a 15-year sentence for robbery by means of a deadly weapon (a capital offense in Missouri), alleged that, prior to his conviction, he requested the aid of counsel, but that none was appointed; that he did not waive his constitutional right to the aid of counsel; that he was incapable of making his own defense adequately, and, as a consequence, was compelled to plead guilty. The court allowed the petitioner to proceed in forma pauperis, but denied the petition for failure to state a cause of action.
1. The petitioner's right to counsel was a right protected by the Fourteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution. P. 473.
2. Whether the federal right of the petitioner was infringed is for this Court to determine. P. 473.
3. The petition's having been denied without requiring the State to answer and without giving the petitioner an opportunity to prove his allegations, and the allegations of the petition being not inconsistent with the recitals of the accompanying certified copy of the sentence and judgment, this Court treats the allegations of the petition as true. P. 474.
4. The petition sufficiently alleged a deprivation of due process of law in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45. P. 474.
5. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it will be presumed that, when a defendant requests counsel, he is without counsel and without funds to retain counsel. P. 474.
6. Although a judgment based on a plea of guilty, like other judgments, may not be set aside lightly on collateral attack, a judgment based on a plea of guilty to a capital offense by a defendant who requested but was not granted counsel, and who was incapable adequately of making his own defense, stands on a different footing. P. 474.
7. The nature of the offense charged against the petitioner emphasized the need of counsel. P. 474.
8. The right of the petitioner to challenge the validity of the judgment of conviction on the constitutional ground of denial of
his right to counsel cannot be defeated by his failure to take an appeal from that judgment. P. 477.
9. Since the state grounds were advanced to sustain the denial of the petition are insubstantial, the denial is assumed to have been on the ground that the petition stated no cause of action based on the federal right. P. 478.
Certiorari, 322 U.S. 725, to review an order denying a petition for a writ of habeas corpus.
DOUGLAS, J., lead opinion
MR. JUSTICE DOUGLAS delivered the opinion of the Court.
Petitioner pleaded guilty to an indictment charging him with robbery by means of a deadly weapon. The Circuit Court of Iron County, Missouri, found him guilty and sentenced him to the state penitentiary, where he is now confined, for a term of fifteen years on May 28, 1940. In April, 1944, he filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in the Supreme Court of Missouri. After reciting the foregoing facts concerning his conviction, he further alleges in his petition:
Prior to his conviction and sentence, as aforesaid, the petitioner requested the aid of counsel. At the time of his conviction and sentence, as aforesaid, the petitioner was without the aid of counsel, the Court [65 S.Ct. 365] did not make an appointment of counsel, nor did petitioner waive his constitutional right to the aid of counsel, and he was incapable adequately of making his own defense, in consequence of which he was compelled to plead guilty.
And he contends that he was deprived of counsel contrary to the requirements of the due process clause of the Fourteenth
Amendment. The Supreme Court of Missouri allowed petitioner to proceed in forma pauperis, but denied the petition for the reason that it "fails to state a cause of action." The case is here on a petition for a writ of certiorari which we granted because of the substantial nature of the constitutional question which is raised. 322 U.S. 725.
Missouri has a statute which requires a court, on request, to assign counsel to a person unable to employ one and who is charged with a felony. Rev.Stat. 1939, § 4003. The Missouri Supreme Court did not indicate the reasons for its denial of the petition beyond the statement that the petition failed to state a cause of action. Whatever the grounds of that decision, it is binding on us insofar as state law is concerned. Smith v. O'Grady, 312 U.S. 329. But the right to counsel in cases of this type is a right protected by the Fourteenth Amendment of the federal Constitution. The question whether that federal right has been infringed is not foreclosed here, even though the action of the state court was on the ground that its statute requiring the appointment of counsel was not violated. Powell v. Alabama, 287 U.S. 45, 59-60. And Missouri has not suggested in the argument before this Court that it provides a remedy other than habeas corpus for release from a confinement under a judgment of conviction obtained as a result of an unconstitutional procedure. Neither in the briefs nor in oral argument did Missouri suggest that its habeas corpus procedure (see Rev.Stat. 1939, §§ 1590, 1621, 1623.) is not available in this situation.1
The petition for habeas corpus was denied without requiring the State to answer or without giving petitioner an opportunity to prove his allegations. And the allegations
contained in the petition are not inconsistent with the recitals of the certified copy of the sentence and judgment which accompanied the petition and under which petitioner is confined. Hence, we must assume that the allegations of the petition are true. Smith v. O'Grady, supra. Read in that light, we think the petition makes a prima facie showing of denial of the constitutional right. The Missouri Supreme Court has ruled that, when a defendant requests counsel, it will be "presumed," in absence of evidence to the contrary (State v. Steelman, 318 Mo. 628, 631, 300 S.W. 743) that he was "without counsel and that he lacked funds to employ them." State v. Williams, 320 Mo. 296, 306, 6 S.W.2d 915, 918. We indulge the same presumption. Certainly it may be reasonably inferred from that request, and from the further allegation that, as a result of the court's failure to appoint counsel, petitioner was "compelled to plead guilty," that he was unable to employ counsel to present his defense because he was without funds. Like other judgments, a judgment based on a plea of guilty is not, of course, to be lightly impeached in collateral proceedings. See Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458, 468-469. But a plea of guilty to a capital offense made by one who asked for counsel but could not obtain one, and who was "incapable adequately of making his own defense," stands on a different footing. Robbery in the first degree, Rev.Stat. 1939, § 4450, by means of a deadly weapon is a capital offense in Missouri. Rev.Stat. 1939, § 4453. The law of Missouri has important distinctions between robbery in the first degree, robbery in the second degree, grand larceny, and petit larceny.2 These involve technical requirements of the [65 S.Ct. 366] indictment or information, the kind of evidence required
for conviction,3 the instructions necessary to define the several elements of the crime,4 and the various defenses which are available. These are a closed book to the average layman. These considerations underscore what was said in Powell v. Alabama, supra, p. 69:
Even the intelligent and educated layman has small and sometimes no skill in the science of law. If charged with crime, he is incapable, generally, of determining for himself whether the indictment is good or bad. He is unfamiliar with the rules of evidence. Left without the aid of counsel, he may be put on trial without a proper charge, and convicted upon incompetent evidence, or evidence irrelevant to the issue or otherwise inadmissible. He lacks both the skill and knowledge adequately to prepare his defense, even though he have a perfect one. He requires the guiding hand of counsel at every step in the proceedings against him. Without it, though he be not guilty, he faces the danger of conviction because he does not know how to establish his innocence. If that be true of men of intelligence, how much more true is it of the ignorant and illiterate, or those of feeble intellect.
Those observations are as pertinent in connection with the accused's plea as they are in the conduct of a trial. The decision to plead guilty is a decision to allow a judgment of conviction to be entered without a hearing -- a decision which is irrevocable and which forecloses any possibility of establishing innocence. If we assume that petitioner committed a crime, we cannot know the degree of prejudice which the denial of counsel caused. See Glasser v. United States, 315 U.S. 60, 75-76. Only counsel could discern from the facts whether a plea of not guilty to the offense charged or a
plea of guilty to a lesser offense would be appropriate.5 A layman is usually no match for the skilled prosecutor whom he confronts in the courtroom. He needs the aid of counsel lest he be the victim of overzealous prosecutors, of the law's complexity, or of his own ignorance or bewilderment.
These are reasons why the right to counsel is "fundamental." Powell v. Alabama, supra, p. 70; Grosjean v. American Press Co., 297 U.S. 233, 243-244; Avery v. Alabama, 308 U.S. 444, 447. They indicate the protection which the individual needs when charged with crime. Prompt and expeditious detection and punishment of crime are necessary for the protection of society. But that...
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