327 F.3d 56 (2nd Cir. 2003), 98-1041, United States v. Yousef

Docket Nº:98-1041L, 98-1197, 98-1355, 99-1544, 99-1554.
Citation:327 F.3d 56
Party Name:UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Ramzi Ahmed YOUSEF, Eyad Ismoil, also known as Eyad Ismail, and Abdul Hakim Murad, also known as Saeed Ahmed, Defendants-Appellants, Mohammed A. Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmud Abouhalima, also known as Mahmoud Abu Halima, Bilal Alkaisi, also known as Bilal Elqisi, Ahmad Mohammad Ajaj, also know as Khurram Khan,
Case Date:April 04, 2003
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
 
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327 F.3d 56 (2nd Cir. 2003)

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee,

v.

Ramzi Ahmed YOUSEF, Eyad Ismoil, also known as Eyad Ismail, and Abdul Hakim Murad, also known as Saeed Ahmed, Defendants-Appellants,

Mohammed A. Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmud Abouhalima, also known as Mahmoud Abu Halima, Bilal Alkaisi, also known as Bilal Elqisi, Ahmad Mohammad Ajaj, also know as Khurram Khan, Abdul Rahman Yasin, also know as Aboud, and Wali Khan Amin Shah, also known as Grabi Ibrahim Hahsen, Defendants.

Nos. 98-1041L, 98-1197, 98-1355, 99-1544, 99-1554.

United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.

April 4, 2003

Argued: May 3, 2002.

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David N. Kelley and Michael J. Garcia, Assistant United States Attorneys (Mary Jo White, United States Attorney, on the brief, David Raskin, Adam B. Siegel, Jennifer G. Rodgers, James J. Benjamin, Jr., Baruch Weiss, Jamie L. Kogan, Christine H. Chung, Ira M. Feinberg, Assistant United States Attorneys, of counsel), United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York, New York, NY, for Appellee United States of America.

Bernard V. Kleinman and Steven Z. Legon, White Plains, NY, for Defendant-Appellant Ramzi Ahmed Yousef.

Louis R. Aidala (Joan Palermo, on the brief), New York, NY, for Defendant-Appellant Eyad Ismoil.

Jerry L. Tritz (Amy J. Porter, on the brief), Law Office of Jerry L. Tritz, New York, NY, for Defendant-Appellant Abdul Hakim Murad.

Before: WALKER, Chief Judge, WINTER and CABRANES, Circuit Judges.

JOHN M. WALKER, Jr., Chief Judge, RALPH K. WINTER and JOSÉ A. CABRANES, Circuit Judges.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ............................................................... 77

GENERAL BACKGROUND ......................................................... 78

I. World Trade Center Bombing .................................... 78

II. Airline Bombing ............................................... 79

AIRLINE BOMBING CASE ....................................................... 80

BACKGROUND .............................................................. 80

I. Preparation for Airline Bombing Conspiracy .................... 80

II. Discovery of Airline Bombing Plot ............................. 81

III. Arrests of Shah, Yousef, and Murad ............................ 82

DISCUSSION .............................................................. 85

I. Assertion of Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Over Defendants Yousef and Murad ............................................ 85

A. Jurisdiction to Prosecute Defendants' Extraterritorial Conduct Under Federal Law ............................. 86

1. Applicable Law .................................... 86

2. Counts Thirteen and Fourteen ...................... 86

3. Count Twelve ...................................... 87

4. Count Nineteen .................................... 88

B. Exercise of United States Extraterritorial Jurisdiction and Customary International Law ....................... 90

1. Bases of Jurisdiction over the Counts Charged ..... 92

a. Relationship between Domestic and International Law in Yousef's Prosecution ... 92

b. Treaty "Based Jurisdiction: The Hague and Montreal Conventions ........................ 94

2. Jurisdiction over Counts Twelve through Eighteen .. 96

3. Jurisdiction over Count Nineteen .................. 97

a. The District Court's Holding and Yousef's Challenges on Appeal ........................ 97

i. The District Court's Opinion ........... 98

ii. The Use of Authority in Determining Customary International Law .......... 99

iii. The Universality Principle Provides for Jurisdiction over Only a Limited Set of Acts Violating the Law of Nations ............................. 103

b. Jurisdiction Is Proper Under United States Laws Giving Effect to Its Obligations Under the Montreal Convention .................... 108

c. In Any Event, Jurisdiction Over Count Nineteen Is Proper under the Protective Principle of Customary International Law ... 110

C. Due Process Claims ..................................... 111

1. Due Process Nexus ................................ 111

2. Due Process in Conduct of Trial .................. 112

D. Venue in Southern District of New York ................. 114

E. Doctrine of Specialty .................................. 115

II. Conviction of Yousef Under 18 U.S.C. § 2332 .................. 116

A. Prosecutorial Discretion Under Section 2332(d) ......... 116

B. Failure to Charge Jury on Intent to Retaliate .......... 117

III. District Court Failure to Sua Sponte Voir Dire the Jury Mid"Trial Regarding the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church . 118

IV. Liberation Army Letter ....................................... 120

A. Admission of Liberation Army Letter .................... 121

B. Failure to Redact Liberation Army Letter ............... 122

V. District Court Denial of Murad's Motion to Suppress His Post"Arrest Statement ...................................... 122

A. District Court Decision ................................ 123

B. Standard of Review ..................................... 124

C. Murad's Alleged Request for a Lawyer ................... 124

D. Voluntariness of Confession ............................ 125

1. FBI Coercion ..................................... 125

2. Hegarty's Testimony .............................. 126

3. Murad's Allegations of Torture by Philippine Officials ...................................... 126

4. United States Government's Lack of Knowledge Regarding Philippine Mistreatment .............. 127

E. Harmless Error ......................................... 128

VI. Murad's Sixth Amendment Right to Present a Defense ........... 128

A. Applicable Law ......................................... 128

B. Reports by Amnesty International and the United States Department of State Regarding Abusive Treatment by Philippine Police .................................... 128

C. Discovery from the Philippines ......................... 129

D. Jury Charge on Voluntariness ........................... 130

VII. "Bully" Charge on Circumstantial Evidence of Intent .......... 131

VIII. Sufficiency of the Evidence on Yousef's Attempt Convictions .. 133

WORLD TRADE CENTER CASE ................................................... 135

BACKGROUND ............................................................. 135

I. Indictment and Apprehension of Yousef and Ismoil ............. 135

II. The World Trade Center Bombing Trial ......................... 135

DISCUSSION ............................................................. 137

I. Yousef's Pre"Trial Motions ................................... 137

A. Motion to Dismiss the Indictment ....................... 137

B. Motion to Suppress ..................................... 139

1. Attachment of Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel Upon Indictment for the World Trade Center Bombing ........................................ 140

2. Invocation of Right to Counsel ................... 141

3. Sixth Amendment Rights Based on Assignment of Asylum Counsel ................................. 142

4. Purported Due Process Requirement of Appointment of Counsel ..................................... 143

5. Voluntariness of Yousef's Post" Arrest Statements . 144

II. Ismoil's Motion to Suppress His Statement to Jordanian Authorities ................................................ 144

III. The Daubert Hearing .......................................... 147

IV. Yousef's Motion to Sever ..................................... 149

V. The Admission of Ismoil's Redacted Statement ................. 152

VI. Yousef's Motion for a Change of Venue ........................ 155

VII. Exclusion of Evidence of Government's Inconsistent Theories .. 155

VIII. Admission of Government's Fingerprint Evidence and Telephone Call Charts ................................................ 157

IX. Jury Instructions Concerning Ismoil's Knowledge .............. 158

X. Jury Instruction on "Aiding and Abetting" .................... 160

XI. Failure to Dismiss the Alternate Jurors ...................... 160

XII. Cumulative Violation of Right to Fair Trial .................. 161

SENTENCING ISSUES ......................................................... 161

I. Ex Post Facto Claim .......................................... 162

II. Length of Sentences .......................................... 162

III. Fines and Restitution ........................................ 164

IV. Special Conditions of Confinement ............................ 165

POST JUDGMENT ISSUES ...................................................... 166

I. "Scarpa Materials" ........................................... 166

II. Recusal ...................................................... 169

CONCLUSION ................................................................ 170

I. Airline Bombing Case ......................................... 170

II. World Trade Center Case ...................................... 171

III. Sentencing Issues ............................................ 172

IV. Post" Judgment Issues...

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