327 U.S. 251 (1946), 444, Bigelow v. Rko Radio Pictures
|Docket Nº:||No. 444.|
|Citation:||327 U.S. 251, 66 S.Ct. 574, 90 L.Ed. 652|
|Party Name:||BIGELOW et al. v. RKO RADIO PICTURES, Inc., et al.|
|Case Date:||February 25, 1946|
|Court:||United States Supreme Court|
Argued Feb. 7, 1946.
Rehearing Denied March 25, 1946.
See 327 U.S. 817, 66 S.Ct. 815.
Action by Florence B. Bigelow and others against RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., and others under the Sherman and Clayton Acts for injunction and to recover treble damages because of defendants' alleged monopolistic practices in exhibiting motion pictures. Judgment of the District Court for plaintiffs was reversed by the Circuit Court of Appeals with directions, 150 F.2d 877, and plaintiffs bring certiorari.
Judgment of the District Court affirmed and judgment of the Court of Appeals reversed.
Mr. Justice FRANKFURTER dissenting.
On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
[66 S.Ct. 575] Mr. Thomas C. McConnell, of Chicago, Ill., for petitioners.
Mr. Edward F. McClennen, of Boston, Mass., for respondents.
Mr. Chief Justice STONE delivered the opinion of the Court.
Petitioners brought this suit in the District Court for Northern Illinois under ss 1, 2 and 7 of the Sherman Act, 26 Stat. 209, and ss 4 and 16 of the Clayton Act, 38 Stat. 731, 15 U.S.C. ss 1, 2, 15, and 26, 15 U.S.C.A. ss 1, 2, 15, 26, for an injunction and to recover treble damages. Petitioners, who are owners of the Jackson Park motion picture theatre in Chicago, alleged by their bill of complaint that respondents, some of whom are distributors of moving picture films, and some of whom own or control moving picture theatres in Chicago, entered into a conspiracy which continued from
some date prior to November 1, 1936 to the date the suit was brought, July 28, 1942, pursuant to which film was distributed among moving picture theatres in the Chicago district in such a manner that theatres owned by some of the conspirators were enabled to secure and show feature pictures in advance of independent exhibitors, not affiliated with respondents, such as petitioners.
The gist of the complaint is that by reason of the conspiracy, petitioners were prevented from securing pictures for exhibition in their theatre until after the preferred exhibitors had been able to show them in the earlier and more desirable runs, and that petitioners have thus been discriminated against in the distribution of feature films in favor of competing theatres owned or controlled by some of the respondents. Petitioners charged that in consequence they had been subjected to loss of earnings in excess of $120,000 during the five year period from July 27, 1937 to July 27, 1942. The matter of the injunction was reserved and the case went to trial solely on the question of damages. The jury returned a verdict for $120,000 in petitioners' favor. The trial court gave judgment for treble that amount, as prescribed by s 4 of the Clayton Act. The Circuit Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit reversed on the sole ground that the evidence of damage was not sufficient for submission to the jury, and directed the entry of a judgment for respondents non obstante veredicto. 150 F.2d 877. We granted certiorari, 326 U.S. 709, 66 S.Ct. 144, because of the importance of the problem presented.
Respondents do not now assail the jury's verdict, so far as it found an unlawful conspiracy to maintain a discriminatory system of distribution. The sole question for decision here is whether the evidence of damage is sufficient to support the verdict. As the jury returned a general verdict, the nature and extent of the unlawful conspiracy must be ascertained in the light of the instructions
given to the jury, taking that view of the evidence most favorable to petitioners. Petitioners have been since November 1, 1936 the owners in partnership of the Jackson Park Theatre, located on the south side of Chicago. Respondents RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., Loew's, Inc., Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation, Paramount Pictures, Inc., and Vitagraph, Inc., are distributors of motion picture films. Respondent RKO also owns two large first-run theatres in the Chicago Loop. Respondent Balaban & Katz Corporation is a motion picture exhibitor, which operates a chain of some fifty theatres in Chicago and its suburbs, including the Maryland Theatre and others on the south side of Chicago which compete with the petitioners' Jackson Park Theatre. Balaban & Katz is a subsidiary of Paramount. Respondent Warner Bros. Circuit Management Corporation is an exhibitor which operates more than twenty theatres in Chicago, including several on Chicago's south side which also compete with petitioners' theatre. Warner Bros. Circuit Management Corporation and Vitagraph are subsidiaries of Warner Bros. Pictures, [66 S.Ct. 576] Inc. Respondent Warner Bros. Theatres, Inc., is also affiliated with Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. and holds title to certain of the Warner theatres.
There was evidence from which the jury could have found that respondents maintained in the Chicago district, by a conspiracy among themselves, a discriminatory system of distributing motion pictures for showing in successive weeks of release. The release system, as described in the complaint, and shown by the proof, operated substantially as follows: Respondent distributors rent their copyrighted product to motion picture theatres for exhibition to the public. Rental contracts between distributors and exhibitors undertake to furnish films to the exhibitors for stipulated rentals, and provide for the 'playing position' in which the motion picture theatre is to exhibit the films relative to the 'playing position' of other
theatres in the competitive area. In Chicago, these contracts uniformly provide that the larger theatres in the Chicago Loop, all owned, leased, or operated by one or more of the respondents, shall have the right to the 'first run' of the motion pictures distributed by the respondents, for one week or such longer period as they may desire to exhibit them. Following the 'first run', the motion picture may not be shown in any Chicago theatre outside the Loop for three weeks, a period known as 'clearance.' In the fourth week following the end of the Loop run, the film is released for exhibition in theatres outside the Loop for successive runs in various theatres, for periods known as the 'A,' 'B' and 'C' 'pre-release weeks,' followed by weeks of 'general release'.
The earlier a playing position, the more desirable it is, since it is preferable to exhibit pictures before they have been shown to the public in other theatres in the competitive area. There was evidence that respondent distributors and exhibitors conspired to give to the distributor-controlled or affiliated theatres preferential playing positions in the release system over the positions allotted to independent competing theatres, including that of petitioners, with the result that petitioners' theatre was unable to obtain feature films until the first week of 'general release,' or ten weeks after the end of the Loop run. By that time most of respondent exhibitors' theatres, with several of which petitioners' theatre competes, and which enjoyed the prior 'A,' 'B' or 'C' pre-release runs, had finished their showings. Rgardless of the price offered for rental of film, the respondent exhibitors, in execution of the conspiracy, refused to release films to petitioners' theatre except for the first week of 'general release.'
Although petitioners' ground for recovery, as stated by their bill of complaint, was the discriminatory operation of the system of releasing pictures for showing in allotted playing positions, whereby the petitioners were prevented
from acquiring films for exhibition until they had been shown in respondent distributors' theatres competing with the Jackson Park, evidence was introduced in the course of the trial tending to show that respondents conspired to maintain the release system as part of a conspiracy to maintain minimum admission prices to be charged by exhibitors generally. This proof indicated that the object of this conspiracy was to make it possible to maintain high admission prices in the Loop theatres by restricting the price-competition of the subsequent run theatres. The distributors' contracts with the Loop theatres provided for film rentals based on a percentage of the admission fees collected. It appeared that the rental contracts entered into between respondent distributors and the Chicago exhibitors, including respondent exhibitors and petitioners, uniformly contained schedules of minimum admission prices fixed on the basis of the playing position assigned. There was thus evidence tending to show that the release system and the price fixing system were each an integral part of an unlawful conspiracy to give to the Loop theatres the advantages of a first-run protected from low-price competition.
Respondents' evidence, on the other hand, tended to show that the release system was a natural growth in the industry, and that the fixed price system had resulted from the individual action of distributors, not acting in concert, to market their copyrighted product in such a manner as to secure the best possible financial return from the film distributed. See Interstate Circuit v. United States, 306 U.S. 208, 59 S.Ct. 467, 83 L.Ed. 610; consent decree in [66 S.Ct. 577] United States v. Balaban & Katz Corp., C.C.H. Fed. Trade Reg. Serv., 7th Ed., Court Decisions Supplement, p. 5025.
Two classes of evidence were introduced by petitioners to establish their damage. One was a comparison of earnings during the five year period of petitioners' Jackson Park Theatre with the earnings of its competitor, the
Maryland Theatre, the two being comparable in size, the Jackson Park being superior in location,...
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