336 F.2d 754 (D.C. Cir. 1964), 17915, Texaco, Inc. v. F. T. C.
|Docket Nº:||17915, 17923.|
|Citation:||336 F.2d 754|
|Party Name:||TEXACO, INC., Petitioner, v. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Respondent. The B. F. GOODRICH COMPANY, Petitioner, v. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, Respondent.|
|Case Date:||July 30, 1964|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit|
Argued April 10, 1964.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Mr. Milton Handler, of the bar of the Court of Appeals of New York, pro hac vice, by special leave of court, New York City, with whom Messrs. James O. Sullivan and Frederick W. P. Lorenzen, New York City, were on the brief, for petitioner in No. 17, 915.
Mr. Edgar E. Barton, of the bar of the Court of Appeals of New York, pro hac vice, by special leave of court, New York City, for petitioner in No. 17, 923.
Mr. John F. Doyle, Washington, D.C., also entered an appearance for petitioner in No. 17, 923.
Mr. Alvin L. Berman, Atty., Federal Trade Commission, with whom Messrs. James McI. Henderson, Gen. Counsel, and Louis Russell Harding, Atty., Federal Trade Commission, were on the brief, for respondent in Nos. 17, 915 and 17, 923.
Before WILBUR K. MILLER, WASHINGTON and BURGER, Circuit judges.
WILBUR K. MILLER, Circuit Judge.
Texaco, Inc. (formerly The Texas Company) and The B. F. Goodrich Company have filed separate petitions for review of an order of the Federal Trade Commission which was issued April 15, 1963, after proceedings which will be described. The cases were heard together and will be disposed of in a single opinion.
On January 11, 1956, after an investigation which began at least as early as 1952, the Federal Trade Commission issued a complaint against the petitioners charging them with violating Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45, by engaging in unfair methods of competition in interstate commerce. Specifically, the object of the Commission's attack was the implementation of a contract between the two companies, entered into in 1940, in which Texaco undertook, in return for a commission, to promote the sale of Goodrich tires, batteries and accessories (TBA) to its thousands of dealers in its petroleum products. It was alleged that Texaco has entered into a similar contract with Firestone Tire & Rubber Company.
The complaint stated that influence and control over the purchasing and marketing activities of its dealers has been and is being exercised by Texaco 'by recommending, urging, persuading and causing them to purchase a substantial quantity of TBA products from Goodrich and Firestone, the sellers designated by it.' The acts and practices of Goodrich and Texaco under the commission contract, the complaint said,
'* * * have unduly frustrated, hindered, suppressed, lessened, restrained, prevented and eliminated competition in the sale of TBA products in commerce within the intent and meaning of the Federal Trade Commission Act; have the capacity and tendency to restrain unreasonably and have restrained unreasonably such commerce in said products; and constitute unfair methods of competition and unfair acts and practices, in commerce, within the intent and meaning of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act.'
Essentially, the complaint was that Texaco coerces its dealers, through economic pressure, to distribute Goodrich TBA and thus unfairly and unlawfully prevents Goodrich's competitors from selling TBA to Texaco's outlets.
Answers by the companies placed the essential allegations of the complaint in issue, after which evidentiary hearings were conducted over a period of nearly three years. They were concluded December 10, 1958. The examiner, in his initial decision issued October 23, 1959, found that Goodrich had not done anything to force Texaco outlets to buy its products; that there was neither charge nor proof that Goodrich had conspired with Texaco to restrain competition; and that the commissions paid by it under the contract were for substantial services rendered by Texaco in promoting the sale of its products. Accordingly, the initial
decision of October 23, 1959, dismissed the complaint against Goodrich.
With respect to Texaco, the examiner found that the contracts between Texaco and its dealers do not contain any provision requiring the latter to purchase only Goodrich TBA. He said the commission paid to Texaco by Goodrich is based on substantial services rendered by Texaco in promoting the sale of Goodrich TBA, and added:
'No inference or implication can be drawn, simply from the contractual relationship between Texas and its dealers, that the degree of control by Texas over its dealers is sufficient to force its dealers to purchase only sponsored TBA.'
The examiner found, however, that
'* * * the record in this proceeding as a whole indicates that coercion and pressure was, in fact, brought on a substantial number of dealers to induce them to purchase sponsored TBA and to discontinue the purchase or display of nonsponsored items.' 1 (Emphasis supplied.)
Pursuant to this, the examiner's initial decision of October 23, 1959, ordered Texaco to cease and desist from coercing its dealers into purchasing TBA from any particular supplier.
In keeping with the deliberate progress of this proceeding, the Commission did not act on the initial decision of October 23, 1959, until March 9, 1961. On that day it handed down an opinion in which it not only reversed the examiner's dismissal of Goodrich but also found
'* * * that Texaco had sufficient economic power over its wholesale and retail petroleum distributors to cause them to purchase substantial amounts of sponsored TBA even without the use of overt coercive tactics * * *'
Proceeding from its assumption that Texaco had controlling economic power over its dealers, 'even without the use of overt coercive tactics, ' the Commission said:
'* * * The determination of whether Texaco's exercise of such economic power in favor of Firestone and Goodyear under the oil company's sales commission contracts with these rubber companies constitutes an unfair method of competition depends, therefore, upon the competitive effects of these sales commission contracts; not upon whether Texaco has exercised its power to implement such contracts through the use of overt coercive tactics, or by more subtle, but equally effective, means.
'At issue in this litigation, then, is the legality of a particular method of distributing TBA used by respondents. A key fact in evaluating the competitive effects of respondent's use of the sales commission method of distributing TBA is the fact that Texaco has sufficient economic power with respect to its retail and wholesale petroleum distributors to cause them to purchase substantial quantities of the brand of TBA sponsored or sold by Texaco. But such economic power is a fact existing independently of any particular method of distributing TBA which Texaco may use. Whether the sales commission agreements between Firestone and Texaco and Goodrich and Texaco are unlawful must depend, therefore, upon the characteristics and the competitive effects of these sales commission agreements. For reasons set forth
hereinafter, we conclude that this case must be remanded in order that market data may be introduced to show the competitive effects of Texaco's sales commission agreements with Goodrich and Firestone upon competing suppliers of tires, batteries and accessories at the manufacturing, wholesale and retail levels.'
Having thus concluded that the legality of the sales commission agreements depends upon 'the characteristics 2 and the competitive effects' of the agreements, the Commission closed its opinion by saying:
'However, the record in this case does not contain sufficient market data to enable the Commission to assess the competitive effects of the sales commission method of distributing TBA employed by these respondents. The case will be remanded to the hearing examiner for the taking of evidence indicating the competitive effects of the sales commission contracts at the manufacturing, wholesale and retail levels of TBA distribution.'
More than a year after the remand of March 9, 1961, 3 the examiner conducted hearings from July 16 to July 19, 1962, at which the only proof introduced was in the form of exhibits received over the objection of the petitioners. A new initial decision was filed by the examiner September 24, 1962. In it he incorporated the findings of fact of his first initial decision and made additional findings of fact based on the record as supplemented after remand. The examiner noted that he was bound by the Commission's reversal of his dismissal of Goodrich, and by its finding that Texaco has sufficient economic power over its dealers to cause them to purchase substantial amounts of sponsored TBA, even without the use of coercive tactics. He concluded that
'* * * the only issue left for consideration of the hearing examiner under the terms of the Commission's opinion and order of remand, is the competitive effects of the sales commission plan used by Goodrich with The Texas Company, and whether Texaco's exercise of such economic power in favor of Goodrich and Firestone under their sales commission contracts have sufficient competitive effect to constitute an unfair method of competition or an unfair act or practice.'
The examiner disposed of the 'only issue left for (his) consideration' by concluding that
'The use of the sales commission plan of distribution of TBA by the respondents, The Texas Company and The B. F. Goodrich Company as herein found, has a tendency and capacity to restrict, restrain or lessen competition in the sale of TBA products and constitutes and unfair...
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