419 F.2d 1211 (5th Cir. 1969), 27983, Singleton v. Jackson Municipal Separate School Dist.
|Citation:||419 F.2d 1211|
|Party Name:||Derek Jerome SINGLETON et al., Appellants, v. JACKSON MUNICIPAL SEPARATE SCHOOL DISTRICT et al., Appellees. No. 26285. Clarence ANTHONY et al., Appellants, v. MARSHALL COUNTY BOARD OF EDUCATION, Appellee. No. 28261. UNITED STATES of America, Appellant, v. Charles F. MATHEWS et al., Appellees. No. 28045. Linda STOUT, by her father and next friend Bl|
|Case Date:||December 01, 1969|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit|
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Reuben V. Anderson, Paul Brest, Iris Brest, Fred L. Banks, Jr., Marian E. Wright, Melvyn R. Leventhal, Jackson, Miss., Jack Greenberg, Franklin White, Melvyn Zarr, Norman J. Chachkin, Jonathan Shapiro, New York City, Robert Moore, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Div., Washington, D.C., for appellants Derek Jerome Singleton and others.
Robert C. Cannada, Thomas H. Watkins, Special Counsel, A. F. Summer, Atty. Gen., Dugas Shands, Asst. Atty. Gen., Jackson, Miss., for appellees Jackson Municipal Separate School District and others.
Jerris Leonard, Asst. Atty. Gen., David L. Norman, Deputy Asst. Atty. Gen., John A. Bleveans, David D. Gregory, Attys., U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., for the United States in all cases.
Louis R. Lucas, Memphis, Tenn., John L. Maxey II, Holly Springs, Miss., Jack Greenberg, Norman Chachkin, New York City, for appellants Clarence Anthony and others.
Semmes Luckett, Clarksdale, Miss., William A. Allain, Asst. Atty. Gen. of Mississippi, Jackson, Miss., for appellee Marshall County Board of Education.
Brian K. Landsberg, David D. Gregory, Gary J. Greenberg, Attys., Civil Rights Div., Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., Richard B. Hardee, U.S. Atty., Tyler, Tex., for appellant the United States.
Henry H. Harbour, John M. Smith, Longview, Tex., for appellees Charles F. Mathews and others.
U. W. Clemon, Birmingham, Ala., Norman Amaker, New York City, David Hood, Bessemer, Ala., for plaintiffs-appellants Linda Stout and Doris Elaine Brown and others.
Jerris Leonard, Asst. Atty. Gen., Frank Dunbaugh, Atty., U.S. Dept . of
Justice, Washington, D.C., for plaintiff-intervenor the United States.
Maurice Bishop, Reid Barnes, Birmingham, Ala., Macdonald Gallion, Atty. Gen., Montgomery, Ala., J. Howard McEniry, Jr., Bessemer, Ala., for defendants-appellees Jefferson County Board of Education, Board of Education of the City of Bessemer and others.
Vernon Z. Crawford, Mobile, Ala., Jack Greenberg, Michael Davidson, New York City, for plaintiffs-appellants Birdie Mae Davis and others.
Abram L. Philips, Jr., James D. Brooks, Pierre Pelham, Mobile, Ala ., for defendants-appellees Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County and others.
Other Interested Parties: Charles S. White-Spunner, Jr., U.S. Atty ., Mobile, Ala., Frank M. Dunbaugh, Walter Gorman, Attys., Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., Charles Morgan, Jr., Atlanta, Ga., for plaintiff-intervenor the United States.
Richard B. Sobol, George M. Strickler, Jr., Robert P. Roberts, Collins, Douglas & Elie, New Orleans, La., Murphy W. Bell, Baton Rouge, La., for plaintiffs-appellants Robert Carter and Sharon Lynne George and others.
John F. Ward, Jr., Baton Rouge, La., Richard H. Kilbourne, Dist. Atty., Clinton, La., Fred C. Jackson, Asst. Dist. Atty., St. Francisville, La., Kenneth C. DeJean, Atty. Gen's. Office, Harry J. Kron, Jr., Asst. Atty. Gen., Baton Rouge, La., for defendants-appellees West Feliciana Parish School Board and C. Walter Davis and others.
George M. Strickler, Jr., Collins, Douglas & Elie, New Orleans, La ., Richard B. Sobol, Jesse H. Queen, Brian K. Landsberg, Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Div., Washington, D.C., for plaintiffs-appellants Irma J. Smith and others.
Kermit M. Simmons, Winnfield, La., W. C. Falkenheiner, Dist. Atty., Vidalia, La., Harry J. Kron, Jr., Thibodaux, La., for defendants-appellees Concordia Parish School Board and others.
Melvin P. Barre, Dist. Atty., Edgard, La., Harry J. Kron, Jr., Dist. Atty., Thibodaux, La., Jack P. F. Gremillion, Atty. Gen. of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, La., for plaintiffs-appellants-cross-appellees Hemon Harris and others.
Benjamin E. Smith, A. P. Tureaud, New Orleans, La., for defendants-appellees-cross-appellants St. John the Baptist Parish School Board and others.
John H. Ruffin, Jr., Augusta, Ga., Jack Greenberg, New York City, for appellants Neely Bennett and Allene Patricia Ann Bennett and others.
W. M. Fulcher, Augusta, Ga., for appellees R. E. Evans and Burke County Board of Education and others.
Norman Chachkin, Jack Greenberg, New York City, Thomas M. Jackson, Macon, Ga., for plaintiffs-appellants Shirley Bivins, Oscar C. Thomie, Jr. and others.
Frank C. Jones, Wallace Miller, Jr., Macon, Ga., for defendants-appellees Bibb County Board of Education and Orphanage for Bibb County and others.
J. Harold Flannery, Atty., Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Div., Washington, D.C., for the United States.
D. P. Hulbert, Perry, Ga., for defendant-appellee Houston County Board of Education.
Theodore R. Bowers, Panama City, Fla., Jack Greenberg, William L. Robinson, New York City, Drew S. Days, III, for plaintiffs-appellants Jean Carolyn Youngblood and others.
Julian Bennett, Panama City, Fla., for defendants-appellees The Board of Public Instruction of Bay County, Fla. and others.
D. Battle Rankin, J. Harold Flannery, Attys., Dept. of Justice, Civil Rights Div., Washington, D.C., for plaintiff-intervenor, the United States.
Earl M. Johnson, Reese Marshall, Jacksonville, Fla., Jack Greenberg, William L. Robinson, James M. Nabrit, III, Norman J. Chachkin, New York City, for plaintiffs-appellants Lavon Wright and others.
Harry C. Duncan, Gainesville, Fla., for defendants-appellees, the Board of Public Instruction of Alachua County, Fla. and others.
Before JOHN R. BROWN, Chief Judge, WISDOM, GEWIN, BELL, THORNBERRY, COLEMAN, GOLDBERG, AINSWORTH, GODBOLD, DYER, SIMPSON, MORGAN, CARSWELL, and CLARK, Circuit Judges, En Banc. [a1]
These appeals, all involving school desegregation orders, are consolidated for opinion purposes. They involve, in the main, common questions of law and fact. They were heard en banc on successive days.
Following our determination to consider these cases en banc, the Supreme Court handed down its decision in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 1969, 396 U.S. 19, 90 S.Ct. 29, 24 L.Ed.2d 19. That decision supervened all existing authority to the contrary. It sent the doctrine of deliberate speed to its final resting place. 396 U.S. at pp. 19, 20, 21, 90 S.Ct. at pp. 29-30, 24 L.Ed.2d at p. 21.
The rule of the case is to be found in the direction to this court to issue its order 'effective immediately declaring that each of the school districts * * * may no longer operate a dual school system based on race or color, and directing that they begin immediately to operate as unitary school systems within which no person is to be effectively excluded from any school because of race or color.' We effectuated this rule and order in United States v. Hinds County School Board, 5 Cir., 1969, 417 F.2d 852. It must likewise be effectuated in these and all other school cases now being or which are to be considered in this or the district courts of this circuit.
The tenor of the decision in Alexander v. Holmes County is to shift the burden from the standpoint of time for converting to unitary school systems. The shift is from a status of litigation to one of unitary operation pending litigation. The new modus operandi is to require immediate operation as unitary systems. Suggested modifications to unitary plans are not to...
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