428 F.3d 408 (2nd Cir. 2005)
Gregory F. DANIEL, M.D., Ian W. Cummings, M.D., John A. Timmons, M.D., Reed E. Paulson, M.D., Albert J. Romanosky, M.D., Bruce W. McNulty, M.D., On Behalf of Themselves and All Others Similarly Situated, Plaintiffs-Appellants,
Joseph L. Albright, Jr., M.D., Lloyd G. Alch, M.D., Richard Alexander, M.D., Jeffrey S. Anderson, M.D., Robert J. Aquino, M.D., Yadon Arad, M.D., Joseph P. Arno, M.D., David E. Baum, M.D., James R. Beutnagel, M.D., Joel S. Bogner, M.D., Charles L. Boursier, M.D., Scott J. Campbell, M.D., Kenneth W. Cartaxo, M.D., Edgar H. Castellanos, M.D., Joseph F. Ceravolo, M.D., Manoj V. Chag, M.D., Patricia C. Chase, M.D., Kenneth G. Christian, Jr., M.D., Mark S. Clippinger, M.D., John T. Columbus, M.D., Michael Cooks, M.D., Craig J. Cott, M.D., Mary Dampier, M.D., David M. Davis, M.D., Patrick J. DiFonzo, M.D., Andrew B. Edwards, M.D., Nancy J. Ferguson, M.D., Denise F. Ferraris, M.D., Kathy W. Forred, M.D., Daniel S. Frank, M.D., Michael S. Gelfond, M.D., Michael G. Ginder, M.D., Keith S. Goldstein, M.D., Maria T. Granzotti, M.D., Robert E. Gross, M.D., Thomas K. Hall, M.D., John A. Hatherley, M.D., Anthony J. Horwitz, M.D., Donald A. Human, M.D., Jonathan A. Jarman, M.D., Jerry Jones, III, M.D., Mark R. Kaehler, M.D., Allen Kagan, M.D., K. Michael Keil, M.D., Martin E. Kernberg, M.D., Herschell King, M.D., M. Stephen Kramer, M.D., Steven M. Kushel, M.D., Charles J. Kutner, M.D., Richard E. Lally, M.D., Peter Lamelas, M.D., Lucille Lanna, M.D., Stephen G. Larkin, M.D., Phillip J. Lastella, M.D., Robert N. Leach, M.D., Richard E. Leahy, M.D., Arthur H. Legate, M.D., Jack M. Levin, M.D., Ronald J. Lugo, M.D., James W. Lunan, M.D., Soren S. Madden, M.D., Mian A. Majeed, M.D., Thomas A. Malone, M.D., Michael R. Monolescu, M.D., John A. Mardones, M.D., Gil Z. Marzinek, M.D., Stanley D. Meers, M.D., Douglas M. Middleton, M.D., Lance E. Montauk, M.D., Charles Jay Morris, M.D., J.D., Peter J. Muran, M.D., Julia I. Nathan, M.D., Kurt F. Papenfus, M.D., Jay L. Patankar, M.D., Howard A. Peth, Jr., M.D., Thomas J. Pliura, M.D., David A. Poggemeier, M.D., Yashbir S. Rana, M.D., Allan Jay Raskin, M.D., Karin V. Rhodes, M.D., Atwood L. Rice, III, M.D., Manuel A. Rivera, M.D., Albert J. James Rosenthal, M.D., John W. Sanders, M.D., Martin N. Schnell, M.D., Steven M. Schreiber, M.D., Michael J. Shaw, M.D., Robin R. Shaw, M.D., David M. Siwicki, M.D., Robert A. Slutsky, M.D., Robin P. Smith, D.O., Perry J. Spavento, M.D., Leo W. Sullivan, M.D., Robert B. Sussman, M.D., Michael S. Taplits, M.D., Richard E. Thistle, Jr., M.D., Hartley M. Thomas, M.D., Richard Y. Thorpe III, M.D., Jane E. Tonkin, M.D., William D. Torres, M.D., Allen G. Tucker, M.D., Laurie D. Vogel, M.D., Deborah S. Weber, M.D., Anthony T. White, M.D., Kipp A. Young, M.D. Plaintiffs-Appellants,
Donald P. Ables, M.D., Carlos Alvarado, M.D., Daniel J. Anhalt, M.D., Robert W. Bates, M.D., George B. Beranek, M.D., Jeffrey D. Blodgett, D.O., Michael L. Brown, M.D., Philip A. Brown, M.D., Marianne C. Burke, M.D., Kwok Wai Chiu, M.D., David S. Clark, M.D., Daria M. Davidson, D.O., Sylvester A. Domme, Jr., M.D., Thomas L. Eaton, M.D., David S. Engelhardt, M.D., Michael C. Finger, M.D., William F. Flader, M.D., Jessica A. Furer, M.D., Kenneth J. Gallant, D.O., Virind D. Gupta, M.D., Steven D. Hanks, M.D., John R. Harris, M.D., Stanley E. Hartman, M.D., James W. Hayden, M.D., Beth E. Haynes, M.D., Joseph F. Hederman, M.D., Dan Heslinga, M.D., Jeffrey P. Howard, M.D., Gloria S. Huckeby, M.D., Raymond F. Jarris, Jr., M.D., Robert J. Jeddeloh, M.D., Daniel H. Kallmerten, M.D., James F. Kenny, M.D., Garry J. Kiernan, M.D., Jahangir Koleini, M.D., G. Thomas Kraus, M.D., Joseph B. Liebman, M.D., Robert Lippa, M.D., Etta Lovitt, M.D., Michael R. Lozano, M.D., Paul F. Paschall, M.D., Deborah Porter, M.D., Frank L. Prasnal, Jr., M.D., Peter J. Reden, M.D., Karl Richey, M.D., David J. Ricketts-Kingfisher, M.D., Coleen Riley, M.D., Rodrigo Rojas, M.D., Kathleen L. Roth, M.D., Julie M. Sabatinos, M.D., Louis Shicker, M.D., Chester J. Skiba, Jr., M.D., R. Giuseppi Slater, M.D., Lee Slavin, M.D., Ronald K. Sterrenberg, D.O., Thomas S. Talkowski, M.D., Robert S. Tano, M.D., Bruce R. Tizes, M.D., Monique M. Van Berkum, M.D., Louis V. Verre, D.O., Hector J. Villanueva, M.D., Barry A. Wayne, M.D., James A. Wichser, M.D., Joseph D. Zirneskie, M.D., Philip A. Zurowsky, M.D., Plaintiffs,
AMERICAN BOARD OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Forsyth Memorial Hospital, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Mercy Catholic Medical Center-Misericordia Division, St. Anthony Hospital, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Saint Francis Hospital & Medical Center, Defendants-Appellees,
Richard Stennes, Michael Bishop, Richard Braen, Joseph Clinton, Gerald Healy, Bruce Janiak, Scott M. Jones, Robert Knopp, Harvey Meislin, Benson Munger, Robert Neerhout, Douglas Rund, Judith Tintinalli, Michael Vance, Gerald Whelan, Henry A. Thiede, M.D., Richard I. Shader, M.D., Steven J. Davidson, M.D., Leonard D. Hudson, M.D., Children's Hospital (San Diego), Kettering Medical Center, Lincoln Medical & Mental Health Center, Lutheran General Hospital, Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hospital, Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, Tri-City Medical Center, Ohio State University, Oregon Health Sciences University Hospital, University Medical Center (Tucson, Arizona), Frank A. Disney, M.D., The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Part of the Johns Hopkins Health System, Ohio State University Hospital, Porter Memorial Hospital, Riverside Methodist Hospitals, UCLA Medical Center, University of California (Irvine) Medical Center, University of California (San Diego) Medical Center, University Hospital-SUNY at Stony Brook, University Hospital at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Defendants,
United States of America, Intervenor-Plaintiff.
Docket Nos. 03-6153(L), 03-6163(XAP), 03-6165(XAP), 03-6157(XAP), 03-6185(XAP), 03-6187(XAP), 03-6167(XAP), 03-6177(XAP).
United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit
October 7, 2005
Argued: October 25, 2004
Appeal from a judgment entered in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York (Richard J. Arcara, Judge; Leslie G. Foschio, Magistrate Judge) dismissing plaintiffs' complaint. Plaintiffs assert that the district court erred in concluding that they lacked antitrust standing to pursue Sherman Act challenges to practices and procedures that rendered them ineligible for board certification in emergency medicine by the American Board of Emergency Medicine. Defendants submit that the district court's ruling as to antitrust standing was correct and that dismissal was further warranted for lack of personal jurisdiction and venue.
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JEREMY R. KASHA, Proskauer Rose LLP, New York, New York (Colin A. Underwood, Proskauer Rose LLP, New York,
New York; Ralph L. Halpern, Mitchell J. Banas, Jr., Jaeckle Fleischmann & Mugel LLP, Buffalo, New York, on the brief), for Plaintiff-Appellant Gregory F. Daniel, M.D., on behalf of himself and others similarly situated.
JEFFREY D. UBERSAX, Jones Day, Cleveland, Ohio (Robert H. Rawson, Jr., Elizabeth A. Grove, on the brief), for Defendant-Appellee American Board of Emergency Medicine.
Jonathan A. Damon, LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & MacRae, LLP, New York, New York, for Defendants-Appellees Children 's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Loma Linda Medical Center and St. Anthony Hospital-Central.
Robert E. Glanville, Phillips Lytle, LLP, Buffalo, New York, for Defendant-Appellee Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors.
Douglass G. Hewitt, Michael Best & Friedrich, LLP, Chicago, Illinois, for Defendant-Appellee Methodist Hospital of Indiana.
Samuel W. Silver, Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for Defendant-Appellee Mercy Catholic Medical Center-Misericordia Division.
Nancy G. Lischer, Hinshaw & Culbertson, Chicago, Illinois, for Defendant-Appellee St. Francis Hospital & Medical Center.
Denise M. Gunter, Nelson, Mullins, Riley & Scarborough, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, for Defend ant-Appellee Forsyth Memorial Hospital.
Before: MCLAUGHLIN, KATZMANN, and RAGGI, Circuit Judges.
REENA RAGGI, Circuit Judge:
Plaintiffs-appellants are licensed physicians who practice or had practiced emergency medicine throughout the United States although they did not complete formal residency training programs in that specialty. They allege that the defendants, the American Board of Emergency Medicine ("ABEM"), the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors ("CORD"), twenty-eight named hospitals, and various individuals now or previously associated with these institutions and organizations, colluded to restrain trade in connection with the practice of emergency medicine in violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act, see 15 U.S.C. § 1, and to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the market for ABEM-certified and -eligible doctors in violation of Section 2 of the Sherman Act, see id. § 2. Plaintiffs specifically complain that the defendants manipulated the residency training requirement for ABEM certification to limit the number of doctors certified in emergency medicine in order to guarantee super-competitive compensation for such doctors and to deny certification and its attendant compensation benefits to members of the plaintiff class.
Plaintiffs now appeal a...