448 F.3d 1294 (Fed. Cir. 2006), 803, In re EchoStar Communications Corp.
|Docket Nº:||Misc. Nos. 803, 805.|
|Citation:||448 F.3d 1294|
|Party Name:||78 U.S.P.Q.2d 1676 In re ECHOSTAR COMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION, Echostar DBS Corporation, Echostar Technologies Corporation, and Echosphere Limited Liability Company, and Merchant & Gould P.C., Petitioners.|
|Case Date:||May 01, 2006|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit|
Rehearing and Rehearing En Banc Denied July 5, 2006.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Harold J. McElhinny, Rachel Krevans, Alison M. Tucher, Morrison & Foerster LLP, San Francisco, CA, Jon R. Trembath, Merchant & Gould P.C., Denver, CO, for Petitioners.
Morgan Chu, Perry M. Goldberg, Christine Byrd, Irell & Manella LLP, Los Angeles, CA, for Respondent.
Before SCHALL, GAJARSA, and PROST, Circuit Judges.
GAJARSA, Circuit Judge.
EchoStar Communications Corporation, EchoStar DBS Corporation, EchoStar Technologies Corporation, and Echosphere Limited Liability Company (collectively "EchoStar") petition for a writ of mandamus, in Miscellaneous Docket No. 803, to direct the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, in case 2:04-CV-1, to vacate its September 26, 2005 and October 6, 2005 orders that compelled EchoStar to produce documents created by the law firm Merchant & Gould P.C. that EchoStar asserts are protected from discovery by the work-product doctrine. Merchant & Gould moves for leave to intervene in Miscellaneous Docket No. 803 and submits its own petition for a writ of mandamus, filed as Miscellaneous Docket No. 805. TiVo, Inc. opposes the petitions and responds to the motion for leave to intervene. EchoStar and Merchant & Gould reply. We grant Merchant & Gould's unopposed motion for leave to intervene
in Miscellaneous Docket No. 803. The motions for leave to file the replies are also granted. To the extent set forth below, we grant the petition for mandamus.
TiVo sued EchoStar for infringement of its U.S. Patent No. 6,233,389 ("the '389 patent"). In response to the allegation of willful infringement, EchoStar asserted the defense of reliance on advice of counsel. Prior to the filing of the action, EchoStar relied on advice of in-house counsel. After the action was filed, EchoStar obtained additional legal advice from Merchant & Gould but elected not to rely on it. Presumably to explore further EchoStar's state of mind in determining that it did not infringe the patent, TiVo sought production of documents in the possession of EchoStar and Merchant & Gould. The district court held that by relying on advice of in-house counsel EchoStar waived its attorney-client privilege and attorney work-product immunity relating to advice of any counsel regarding infringement, including Merchant & Gould. The district court indicated that the scope of the waiver included communications made either before or after the filing of the complaint and any work product, whether or not the product was communicated to EchoStar. The district court also held that EchoStar could redact information related only to trial preparation or information unrelated to infringement. EchoStar produced communications, including two infringement opinions from Merchant & Gould, but did not produce any work product related to the Merchant & Gould opinions. 1
Thereafter, the parties sought clarification of the district court's order. TiVo argued that the district court should order EchoStar to produce all Merchant & Gould documents that relate to the advice-of-counsel defense, even if EchoStar was not in possession of the documents because they were never communicated to EchoStar. EchoStar argued that it should only be required to produce documents that were provided to it by Merchant & Gould.
On October 5, 2005, the district court issued an order that clarified its previous order and stated that the waiver of immunity extended to all work product of Merchant & Gould, whether or not communicated to EchoStar. The district court determined that the documents could be relevant or lead to the discovery of admissible evidence because they might contain information that was conveyed to EchoStar, even if the documents were not themselves conveyed to EchoStar. EchoStar petitions this court for a writ of mandamus with respect to the Merchant & Gould documents not provided to EchoStar, 2 challenging the district court's rulings. Merchant & Gould moves for leave to intervene in EchoStar's petition and submits its own petition for a writ of mandamus.
The remedy of mandamus is available in extraordinary situations to correct a clear abuse of discretion or usurpation of judicial power. In re Calmar, Inc., 854 F.2d 461, 464 (Fed.Cir.1988). A party seeking a writ bears the burden of proving that it has no other means of obtaining the relief desired, Mallard v. U.S. Dist. Court, 490 U.S. 296, 309, 109 S.Ct. 1814, 104 L.Ed.2d 318 (1989), and that the right to issuance of the writ is "clear and indisputable," Allied Chem. Corp. v. Daiflon, Inc., 449 U.S. 33, 35, 101 S.Ct. 188, 66 L.Ed.2d 193 (1980). A writ of mandamus may be
sought when the challenged order turns on questions of privilege. In re Regents of Univ. of Cal., 101 F.3d 1386, 1387 (Fed.Cir.1996); In re Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l, Inc., 238 F.3d 1370, 1374 (Fed.Cir.2001).
EchoStar argues that a writ of mandamus should issue, among other reasons, because the district court erred in determining that (1) the attorney-client privilege had been waived and (2) the waiver of any privilege extended to work-product that was not communicated to EchoStar because, inter alia, the documents are not relevant to whether EchoStar had a good faith belief that it did not infringe. Merchant & Gould also argues that the district court erred in requiring the production of documents that Merchant & Gould did not provide to EchoStar because any such documents could not be relevant to whether EchoStar reasonably had a good faith belief that it did not infringe, based upon advice from counsel.
In response, TiVo argues, inter alia, that (1) EchoStar is not entitled to a writ of mandamus because it has complied, in large part, with the district court orders it now challenges, (2) the attorney-client privilege was waived when EchoStar asserted a defense of reliance on advice of in-house counsel, (3) the relevance of the Merchant & Gould documents can be determined when they are offered as evidence, and (4) even though the Merchant & Gould documents may not have been provided to EchoStar, they may contain information that was otherwise conveyed to EchoStar.
Regarding TiVo's first argument, that EchoStar is not entitled to mandamus because it has complied in large part with the order, we do not believe it is a requirement that a party refuse to comply at all with an order, if it seeks to challenge only a part of the order. Such a rule would encourage parties not to comply with district court orders that, in large part, they do not challenge, so that they could preserve a challenge only to the portions that they believe are erroneous. EchoStar cannot undo the disclosures it has made to TiVo, but it can challenge the portions of the order that require additional disclosures.
We now turn to the more substantive arguments underlying this petition.
In this petition, we apply our own law, rather than the law of the regional circuit. This case involves the extent to which a party waives its attorney-client privilege and work-product immunity when it asserts the advice-of-counsel defense in response to a charge of willful patent infringement. "Federal Circuit law applies when deciding whether particular written or other materials are discoverable in a patent case, if those materials relate to an issue of substantive patent law." Advanced Cardiovascular Sys. v. Medtronic, Inc., 265 F.3d 1294, 1307 (Fed.Cir.2001). A remedy for willful patent infringement is specifically provided for in the Patent Act, see 35 U.S.C. §§ 284-285; therefore, questions of privilege and discoverability that arise from assertion of the advice-of-counsel defense necessarily involve issues of substantive patent law, see In re Spalding Sports Worldwide, Inc., 203 F.3d 800, 803-04 (Fed.Cir.2000) (applying Federal Circuit law to question of attorney-client privilege between patent attorney and patentee).
EchoStar first challenges the district court's holding that EchoStar waived the attorney-client privilege when it asserted its defense in response to the charge of willful infringement. The attorney-client privilege protects disclosure of communications between a client and his
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