45 U.S. 646 (1846), Wilson v. Rousseau
|Citation:||45 U.S. 646, 11 L.Ed. 1141|
|Party Name:||JAMES G. WILSON, PLAINTIFF, v. LEWIS ROUSSEAU AND CHARLES EASTON.|
|Case Date:||March 09, 1846|
|Court:||United States Supreme Court|
THIS case, and the three subsequent ones, namely, Wilson v. Turner, Simpson et al. v. Wilson, and Woodworth & Bunn v. Wilson, were argued together, being known as the patent cases. [*] Many of the points of law involved were common to them all, and those which were fully argued in the first case which came up were but incidentally touched in the discussion of the subsequent cases.
They all related to the rights which were derived under a patent for a planing-machine, taken out by Woodworth, and renewed and extended by his administrators. The validity of the original patent was questioned only in one case, namely, that which came from Kentucky, which was the last argued. There were four cases in all, namely, one from New York, one from Maryland, one from Louisiana, and one from Kentucky. In the course of the argument, counsel referred indiscriminately to the four records, as some documents were in one which were not to be found in another.
The eighteenth section of the patent act of 1836 authorized the extension of a patent, on the application of the executor or administrator of a deceased patentee.
Such an extension does not inure to the benefit of assignees under the original patent, but to the benefit of the administrator (when granted to an administrator), in his capacity as such. But those assignees who were in the use of the patented machine at the time of the renewal have still a right to use it.
The extension could be applied for and obtained by the administrator, although the original patentee had, in his lifetime, disposed of all his interest in the then existing patent. Such sale did not carry any thing beyond the term of the original patent.
A covenant by the patentee, made prior to the law authorizing extensions, that the covenantee should have the benefit of any improvement in the machinery, or alteration or renewal of the patent, did not include the extension by an administrator, under the act of 1836. It must be construed to include only renewals obtained upon the surrender of a patent on account of a defective specification. Parties to contracts look to established and general laws, and not to special acts of Congress.
A plaintiff, therefore, who claims under an assignment from the administrator, can maintain a suit against a person who claims under the covenant.
An assignee of an exclusive right to use two machines within a particular district can maintain an action for an infringement of the patent within that district, even against the patentee.
In the case of Woodworth's planing-machine, the patent granted to the administrator was founded upon a sufficient specification and proper drawings, and is valid.
The decision of the Board of Commissioners, to whom the question of renewal is referred, by the act of 1836, is not conclusive upon the question of their jurisdiction to act in a given case.
The Commissioner of Patents can lawfully receive a surrender of letters patent for a defective specification, and issue new letters patent upon an amended specification, after the expiration of the term for which the original patent was granted, and pending the existence of an extended term of seven years. Such surrender and renewal may be made at any time during such extended term.
The cases will be taken up and reported seriatim, and the documents which are cited in the first will not be repeated in the others.
The first in order was the case from New York, the titling of which is given at the head of this report.
It came up from the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of New York, on a certificate of division in opinion.
On the 26th of November, 1828, William Woodworth presented the following petition.
'To the Honorable Henry Clay, Secretary of State of the United States.
'The petition of William Woodworth, of the city of Hudson, in the county of Columbia and State of New York, respectfully represents:
'That your petitioner has invented a new and improved method of planing, tonguing, grooving, and cutting into mouldings, or either, plank, boards, or any other material, and for reducing the same to an equal width and thickness; and also for facing and dressing brick, and cutting mouldings on, or facing, metallic, mineral, or other substances, not known or used before the application by him, the advantages of which he is desirous of securing to himself and his legal representatives. He therefore prays that letters patent of the United States may be issued, granting unto your petitioner, his heirs, administrators, or assigns, the full and exclusive right of making, constructing, using, and vending to others to be used, his aforesaid new and improved method, agreeably to the acts of Congress in such case made and provided; your petitioner having paid thirty dollars into the treasury of the United States, and complied with the other provisions of the said acts.
'November 26th, 1828.'
On the 4th of December, 1828, Woodworth executed to James Strong the following assignment.
'Whereas I, William Woodworth, of the city of Hudson, in the State of New York, heretofore, to wit, on the 13th day of
September, 1828, assigned and transferred, for a legal and valuable consideration, the one equal half of all my right, title, claim, and interest in and to the invention or improvement mentioned and intended in the foregoing petition, oath, and specification, to James Strong, of the city of Hudson.
'And whereas, also, the subjoined assignment is intended only to convey and assign the same interest transferred and assigned in the assignment of the 13th of September above mentioned, without any prejudice to my one equal half part of said invention or improvement, which is expressly reserved to myself and my legal representatives.
'Now, know all men, that I, the said William Woodworth, for and in consideration of the sum of ten dollars, and other valuable considerations me moving, have, and do hereby, for myself and legal representatives, give, assign, transfer, and assure to the said James Strong and his legal representatives the one full and equal half of all my right, title, interest, and claim in and to my new and improved method of planing, tonguing, grooving, and cutting into mouldings, either plank, boards, or any other material, and for reducing the same to an equal width and thickness, and also for facing and dressing brick, and cutting mouldings on, or facing, metallic, mineral, or other substances, mentioned and intended to be secured by the foregoing petition, oath, and specification, together with all the privileges and immunities, as fully and absolutely as I do or shall enjoy or possess the same; to have and to hold and enjoy the same, to the said James Strong, and his legal representatives, do or may.
'In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and seal, the 4th day of December, 1828.
WILLIAM WOODWORTH. [SEAL.]
On the 6th of December, 1828, Woodworth took the following oath.
'State of New York, Rensselaer County, ss.:
'On this sixth day of December, A. D. 1828, before the subscriber, a justice of the peace in and for the county of Rensselaer aforesaid, personally appeared the aforesaid William Woodworth, and made solemn oath, according to law, that he verily believes himself to be the true and original inventer of the new and improved method, above described and specified, for planing, tonguing, grooving, and cutting into mouldings, or either, plank, boards, or any other material, and for reducing the same to an equal width and thickness; and also for facing and dressing brick,
and cutting mouldings on, or facing, metallic, mineral, or other substances; and that he is a citizen of the United States.
JOHN THOMAS, Justice of the Peace.'
The above documents appear to be recorded in the third volume of Transfers of Patent Rights, pages 155, 156, in the patent-office of the United States.
On the 27th of December, 1828, a patent was issued as follows.
'Letters Patent to W. Woodworth.
'The United States of America to all to whom these letters patent shall come:
'Whereas William Woodworth, a citizen of the United States, hath alleged that he has invented a new and useful improvement in the method of planing, tonguing, grooving, and cutting into mouldings, or either, plank, boards, or any other material, and for reducing the same to an equal width and thickness; and also for facing and dressing brick, and cutting mouldings on, or facing, metallic, mineral, or other substances, which improvements, he states, have not been known or used before his application; hath made oath that he does verily believe that he is the true inventer or discoverer of the said improvement; hath paid into the treasury of the United States the sum of thirty dollars, delivered a receipt for the same, and presented a petition to the Secretary of State, signifying a desire of obtaining an exclusive property in the said improvements, and praying that a patent may be granted for that purpose. These are, therefore, to grant, according to law, to the said William Woodworth, his heirs, administrators, or assigns, for the term of fourteen years from the 27th of December, 1828, the full and exclusive right and liberty of making, constructing, using, and vending to others to be used, the said improvement, a description whereof is given in the words of the said William Woodworth himself, in the schedule hereto annexed, and...
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