471 F.3d 1293 (Fed. Cir. 2006), 04-1620, DSU Medical Corp. v. JMS Co., Ltd.
|Docket Nº:||04-1620, 05-1048, 04-1052.|
|Citation:||471 F.3d 1293, 81 U.S.P.Q.2d 1238|
|Party Name:||DSU MEDICAL CORPORATION and MEDISYSTEMS CORPORATION, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. JMS CO., LTD. and JMS NORTH AMERICA CORPORATION, Defendants-Cross Appellants, and ITL Corporation PTY, Ltd., Defendant-Cross Appellant. ITL Corporation PTY, Ltd., Plaintiff-Cross Appellant, v. DSU Medical Corporation, Defendant-Appellant.|
|Case Date:||December 13, 2006|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit|
Appealed from: United States District Court for the Northern District of California Senior Judge D. Lowell Jensen.
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William J. O'Brien, Alschuler Grossman Stein & Kahan LLP, of Santa Monica, California, argued for plaintiffs-appellants. Of counsel on the brief was Alan H. Blankenheimer, Heller Ehrman White & McAuliffe LLP, of San Diego, California.
Richard H. Zaitlen, Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP, of Los Angeles, California, argued for defendants-cross appellants JMS Co., Ltd., et al. With him on the brief were Julian D. Forman; and Kevin T. Kramer, of Washington, DC. Of counsel were Ross R. Barton, of McLean, Virginia; and Blair M. Jacobs, Sutherland, Asbill & Brennan LLP, of Washington, DC.
Marc N. Bernstein, The Bernstein Law Group, of San Francisco, California, argued for defendant-cross appellant, ITL Corporation PTY, Ltd. With him on the brief were Ronald P. Flynn and Sarah Botz.
Before RADER, SCHALL, and LINN, Circuit Judges.
Concurring opinion filed by Chief Judge MICHEL, and Circuit Judge MAYER on en banc Section III B.
RADER, Circuit Judge.
DSU Medical Corporation (DSU) and Medisystems Corporation (MDS) (collectively DSU) sued JMS Company, Limited (JMS) and JMS North America (collectively JMS) and ITL Corporation Pty, Limited (ITL) for patent infringement, inducement to infringe, and contributory infringement of United States Patent Nos. 5,112,311 ('311) and 5,266,072 ('072). After a six-week jury trial produced a unanimous verdict, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California entered a final judgment finding claims 46-47, and 50-52 of the '311 patent invalid as obvious. The trial court also entered a final judgment, pursuant to the unanimous verdict, of infringement against JMS and JMS North American on claims 49, 53, and 54 of the '311 patent, and of non-infringement for ITL. DSU Med. Corp. v. JMS Co., JMS N. Am. Corp., & ITL Corp. PTY, Nos. C-00-1826-DLJ, C-99-2690-DLJ, slip op. at 3-4 (N.D.Cal. May 7, 2004) (Judgment). The jury awarded total damages of $5,055,211 for infringement against JMS and JMS North America, and the trial court entered a final judgment holding both jointly and severally liable for the award. Finding no reversible error, this court affirms.
The '311 and '072 patents claim a guarded, winged-needle assembly. The invention reduces the risk of accidental needle-stick injuries. Needle puncture wounds can transmit blood-borne diseases such as Hepatitis B and AIDS. The '311 and '072 patented inventions effectively guard standard winged-needle-sets to prevent needle-stick injuries.
The '311 patent claims a "slotted, locking guard for shielding a needle, and a winged needle assembly including a needle, a winged needle hub, and a slotted, locking guard." '311, col.1, l. 8-11. This invention includes both "[a] slotted guard for locking a needle in a shielded position as the needle is removed from the patient", and "a guarded winged needle assembly . . . slidably mounted within the guard." Id., abstract. Figures 5-6 illustrate one embodiment of the patented invention:
Figure 5 is a side view of a needle, winged needle hub (3), and slotted needle guard (1). '311 patent, col. 3, ll. 4-6. In this depiction, the needle (5) remains retracted within the needle guard (1). Id. Figure 6 shows the same needle from above. '311 patent, col. 3, ll. 7-10.
Mr. David Utterberg, a co-inventor of the '311 patent, owns DSU and MDS. DSU owns the '311 patent; MDS has an exclusive license to make and sell the '311 invention for large-bore needles, including Arterial-Venous Fistula (AVF) sets used for dialysis and aphaeresis. MDS markets AVF needles under the brand names "MasterGuard" and "PointGuard."
The alleged infringing device, made by ITL (an Australian company) sells under the name Platypus TM Needle Guard (Platypus). ITL manufactures the Platypus in Malaysia and Singapore. The Platypus needle guard is a "stand-alone" product: a small configured piece of plastic. This plastic guard structure is not attached to any other device. In other words, the Platypus does not include a needle, but only a sheathing structure. Some claims of the '311 patent recite both a slotted guard and a guarded winged needle assembly. Before use, the Platypus resembles an open clamshell (open-shell configuration). During use, the halves of the clam shell close to form the needle guard (closed-shell configuration). The following illustration shows the Platypus in open-and closed-shell configuration:
Transcript of Record at 18685, 18629, DSU Medical Corp. v. JMS Co., JMS North America Corp., & ITL Corp. PTY, Nos. 04-1620, 05-1048, 05-1052 (Fed. Cir. September 21, 2004) (Transcript). The Platypus has an upper and a lower "jaw." When closed, the upper jaw extends around and overlaps the inner, lower jaw. During use, a medical technician closes the Platypus and locks it around tubing connected to the winged needle assembly. When the technician removes the needle from a patient, the worker slides the guard down the tube until the needle assembly's wings meet and pry the jaws apart. The wings and their attached needle assembly slide into and through the guard, forcing the jaws ever wider as the wings make their way into a notched opening at the guard's back. Ultimately the wings slide into the rear opening. At that point, the jaws close around the used needle.
JMS is a large Japanese medical supply business that competes with MDS in the United States market. Beginning in June 1999, JMS purchased Platypus needle guards from ITL, entering into an agreement to distribute the Platypus worldwide (the Supply Agreement). Under the Supply Agreement, JMS bought open-shell configuration Platypus guard units from ITL in Singapore and Malaysia. JMS generally closed the Platypus guards around needle sets before distributing them to customers.
DSU alleges that the Platypus infringes the '311 patent. DSU also alleges that JMS and ITL contributed to and induced each other's infringement. JMS sought to sell ITL's infringing Platypus until it could produce its substitute non-infringing product, the WingEater. ITL offered to supply its infringing Platypus. DSU additionally seeks damages from JMS because it "stole" MDS's ability to renew a MasterGuard exclusive license with a former customer, Fresenius USA Manufacturing, Inc. (Fresenius).
On February 5, 2001, the trial court entered a claim construction order. DSU Med. Corp. v. JMS Co., JMS N. Am. Corp., & ITL Corp. PTY, Nos. C-00-1826-DLJ, C-99-2690-DLJ (N.D.Cal. Feb. 5, 2001) (Claim Construction Order). This court reviews claim construction without deference. Markman v. Westview Instruments, Inc., 52 F.3d 967 (Fed.Cir.1995) (en banc), aff'd, 517 U.S. 370, 116 S.Ct. 1384, 134 L.Ed.2d 577 (1996). "[T]he claims of a patent define the invention to which the
patentee is entitled the right to exclude." Phillips v. AWH Corp., 415 F.3d 1303, 1312 (Fed. Cir. 2005) (citing Vitronics Corp. v. Conceptronic, Inc., 90 F.3d 1576, 1582 (Fed. Cir. 1996) ("We look to the words of the claims themselves . . . to define the scope of the patented invention")). This court recently enunciated predominant claim construction principles in Phillips. 415 F.3d at 1312-24.
The trial court construed "slidably enclosing" in claim 1 of the '311 patent:
1. A guard slidably enclosing a sliding assembly comprising a needle and a winged needle hub ....
'311 patent, col. 15, ll. 46-47 (emphasis added). The trial court concluded that this term in claim 1 "requires that the guard substantially contain the needle-assembly at all times." Claim Construction Order, slip op. at 9. Because the Platypus is a "stand-alone guard" without a needle, the trial court granted summary judgment of non-infringement to the defendants on multiple claims.1 Id., slip op. at 15-19.
The language and context of the claims support the trial court's construction of "slidably enclosing a sliding assembly." Again, the trial court read the claim to require that the guard substantially contain the needle-assembly at all times. Claim Construction Order, slip op. at 9. In the first place, claim 1 expressly recites the presence of a needle as part of the sliding assembly. Thus, the claimed "assembly" would not be complete without a needle. The claim also uses the term "enclosing." In the context of an invention "for locking a needle in a shielded position as the needle is removed from a patient," that language suggests constant shielding or covering of the sharp. '311 patent, col. 2, ll. 8-9. The specification reinforces that suggestion:
[T]he guard is folded about its hinge position and locked . . . into a generally cylindrical, folded configuration. Alternatively, the guard may be molded . . . to enclose a sliding hub/needle assembly that has been positioned between the two pieces.
'311 patent, col. 2, ll. 53-58. By emphasizing that the guard is locked in a protective configuration, or molded to enclose the needle assembly, the specification conveys the concept...
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