479 F.2d 990 (2nd Cir. 1973), 496, In re Kokoszka

Docket Nº496, 72-1972.
Citation479 F.2d 990
Party NameIn the Matter of Henry A. KOKOSZKA et al., Bankrupts, Petitioners.
Case DateMay 18, 1973
CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

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479 F.2d 990 (2nd Cir. 1973)

In the Matter of Henry A. KOKOSZKA et al., Bankrupts, Petitioners.

No. 496, 72-1972.

United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit.

May 18, 1973

Argued Feb. 28, 1973.

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Stuart Bear, New Haven, Conn. (William H. Clendenen, Jr., David M. Lesser, Joanne Faulkner, and Frank Dineen, New Haven, Conn., on the brief), for appellants.

Richard Belford, New Haven, Conn., on the brief, for appellee Trustee in Bankruptcy.

Before KAUFMAN, ANDERSON and MANSFIELD, Circuit Judges.

ROBERT P. ANDERSON, Circuit Judge:

The three appellants herein each filed separate individual voluntary petitions

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in bankruptcy, all of which raise the issue of whether or not, and to what extent, an income tax refund passes to the trustee in bankruptcy as property of the estate. In each case the petitioner had claimed the maximum number of deductions to which he was entitled on his tax withholding statement and in each case the refund was the only asset of the bankrupt estate.

Henry Kokoszka filed his petition and was adjudicated a bankrupt on January 5, 1972. On February 3, the referee ordered him to turn over the proceeds of his 1971 income tax refund to the trustee. After a motion to vacate the order was denied, Kokoszka petitioned for review in the District Court. In the meantime, he turned over the refund amount of $250.90 to the trustee to hold pending the determination of this matter, and he was given his discharge in bankruptcy on August 24, 1972.

Herbert Sands was adjudicated a bankrupt on February 4, 1970, and was ordered to turn over his 1969 tax refund to the trustee. Instead, Sands spent his refund of $201.97, and the trustee moved on March 12, 1971, to deny the discharge for this reason. Subsequent to that, the petitioner moved to vacate the turn-over order, but the referee denied the motion and denied the discharge. Sands then petitioned the District Court for review.

Frank O'Brien was adjudicated a bankrupt on April 30, 1970, and was ordered to turn over his 1969 refund of $136.00 to the trustee. He, too, failed to obey the order and the trustee moved to deny the discharge on March 18, 1971. The referee has not yet ruled on the trustee's motion, but he did deny O'Brien's motion to vacate the original turn-over order, and the petitioner sought review of that denial.

After consolidating the three cases, the District Court held that the tax refunds were property that passed to the trustee under § 70(a)(5) of the Act, 11 U.S.C. § 110(a)(5), and that the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1671 et seq., did not require that the trustee return 75% of the refund to the petitioners. On these issues we affirm; however, we do remand Sands' case in order that the referee may exercise his discretion on whether or not to grant him a discharge in bankruptcy.

The primary point raised by this appeal is whether or not a tax refund is "property" which passes to the bankruptcy trustee under § 70(a)(5) of the Act. 1 The Ninth Circuit recently held that such a tax refund is not § 70(a)(5) property, In Re Cedor, 470 F.2d 996 (9 Cir. 1972); aff'g on the opinion below, 337 F.Supp. 1103 (N.D.Cal.1972). In Re Jones, 337 F.Supp. 620 (D.Minn.) leave to appeal denied (8 Cir., May 14, 1971), cert. denied, 404 U.S. 1040, 92 S.Ct. 719, 30 L.Ed.2d 732 (1972), however, held that a refund does pass to the trustee and the same holding was implicit in In Re Wetterhoff, 453 F.2d 544 (8 Cir.), cert. denied, 409 U.S. 934, 93 S.Ct. 242, 34 L.Ed. 188 (1972), holding that, at the time of filing, the excess of accrued but unpaid wages over and above the portion exempt from attachment under state law, passed to the trustee.

The decision in the present case is governed in large part by two Supreme Court cases, Segal v. Rochelle, 382 U.S. 375, 86 S.Ct. 511, 15 L.Ed.2d 428 (1966)

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, which held that a business generated loss-carryback tax refund, which did not accrue until after the filing of the bankruptcy petition, was § 70(a)(5) property, and Lines v. Frederick, 400 U.S. 18, 91 S.Ct. 113, 27 L.Ed.2d 124 (1970), which held that vacation pay, accrued but unpayable at the time of filing, did not pass to the trustee.

For the purpose of considering what treatment should be given to the tax refunds in question here, the term "property" in § 70(a)(5) must be defined in terms of the purposes of the Bankruptcy Act, rather than by more traditional concepts, Segal, supra, 382 U.S. at 379, 86 S.Ct. 511; In Re Spanish Language Television, 456 F.2d 159, 162 (9 Cir. 1972). Basically, the term "property" is given a generous construction in order to give creditors everything of value, including items where the enjoyment of value is postponed, Segal, supra, 382 U.S. at 379, 86 S.Ct. 511; In Re Robbins Converting Corp., 441 F. 2d 1096, 1098 (2 Cir. 1971). The definition of property is limited, however, where the debtors are wage earners "whose sole source of income, before and after bankruptcy, is their weekly earnings," Lines, supra, 400 U.S. at p. 20, 91 S.Ct. at p. 114 and who, at the filing of their petitions in bankruptcy have wages, as such, or as vacation pay, accrued but not yet paid, and where "the minimal requirements for the economic survival of the debtor are at stake," id., such wage payments are not "property" to be turned over to the trustee under § 70(a)(5). The purpose of this exception is to give the debtor a "new opportunity in life and a clear field for future effort, unhampered by the pressure and discouragement of pre-existing debt," Lines, supra, at 1-20, 91 S.Ct. at 114; Local Loan Co. v. Hunt, 292 U.S. 234, 244, 54 S.Ct. 695, 78 L.Ed. 1230 (1934).

The test as to whether or not such items as accrued but unpaid wages are or are not "property" to be turned over to the trustee is whether the item is "sufficiently rooted in the pre-bankruptcy past and so little entangled with the bankrupts' ability to make an unencumbered fresh start that it should be regarded as 'property' under § 70(a)(5)," Segal, supra, 382 U.S. at 380, 86 S.Ct. at 515.

There were two petitioners in Lines both of whom had accrued vacation pay at the time of the filing of the petition, but neither could receive it until he either went on vacation or his employment was terminated. The one petitioner, Frederick, worked for a manufacturing company which shut down for a week twice a year thereby forcing their employees to take a vacation. The other, Harris, could choose his vacation period, if he desired to take one.

If the vacation pay was held to be property of the estate, it would appear at first glance that Harris was in a somewhat better position that Frederick, because Harris was not forced to take a vacation and go without basic support. Nevertheless, he also was in a difficult position. If he took a vacation, he would have no income for that period; yet, if he did not, and he was laid off, he would not have the use of the pay upon termination for basic support while seeking new work.

Realizing that "[t]he function of their accrued vacation pay is to support the basic requirements of life for them and their families during brief vacation periods or in the event of a layoff," the Supreme Court held that this vacation pay was a specialized type of property that did not pass to the trustee because to hold otherwise would deny the debtor the new opportunity in life which the Bankruptcy Act intended to provide, Lines, supra, 400 U.S. at 20, 91 S.Ct. at 114.

What we have then in Lines is a very narrow exception to the general proposition that everything of value passes to the trustee, i. e., vacation pay which will become essential for basic week to week support in the future does

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not pass. Because a tax refund is not the weekly or other periodic income required by a wage earner for his basic support, to deprive him of it will not hinder his ability to make a fresh start unhampered by the pressure of preexisting debt. Therefore, the tax refund is § 70(a)(5) property which passes to the trustee.

The petitioners have advanced several arguments, however, that bear some comment. First, they maintain that wages, as such, are a specialized type of property which does not pass to the trustee...

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