480 F.Supp. 429 (C.D.Cal. 1979), CV 76-3520, Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Sony Corp. of America
|Docket Nº:||CV 76-3520-F.|
|Citation:||480 F.Supp. 429|
|Party Name:||203 U.S.P.Q. 656 UNIVERSAL CITY STUDIOS, INC., a corporation, dba Universal Television and Universal Pictures, and Walt Disney Productions, a corporation, Plaintiffs, v. SONY CORPORATION OF AMERICA, a corporation, the Sony Corporation, a corporation, Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc., a corporation, Associated Dry Goods Corporation, a corporation, Fe|
|Case Date:||October 02, 1979|
|Court:||United States District Courts, 9th Circuit|
As Amended Dec. 5, 1979.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
Stephen A. Kroft, John G. Davis, Edwin M. Smith, Rosenfeld, Meyer & Susman, Beverly Hills, Cal., for plaintiffs.
Dean C. Dunlavey, Donald E. Sloan, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, Los Angeles, Cal., Max Freund, Ambrose Doskow, and Joel Sternman, Rosenman, Colin, Freund, Lewis & Cohen, New York City, for defendants
Sony Corp. of America, Sony Corp. and Doyle Dane Bernbach Intern., Inc.
Marshall A. Rutter, Warren G. Greene, Rutter & Ebbert, Los Angeles, Cal., for defendants Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc., Associated Dry Goods Corp., Federated Department Stores, Inc. and Henry's Camera Corp.
FERGUSON, District Judge.
Article I, s 8, Cl. 8 of the United States Constitution empowers Congress: "To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries." The Copyright Act passed by Congress in 1909 and revised in 1976 gives authors exclusive rights over some but not all uses of their works. As the Supreme Court wrote in Twentieth Century Music Corp. v. Aiken, 422 U.S. 151, 156, 95 S.Ct. 2040, 2044, 45 L.Ed.2d 84 (1974):
The limited scope of the copyright holder's statutory monopoly, like the limited copyright duration required by the Constitution, reflects a balance of competing claims upon the public interest: Creative work is to be encouraged and rewarded, but private motivation must ultimately serve the cause of promoting broad public availability of literature, music, and the other arts. (footnotes omitted).
This case tests the scope of copyright protection for audiovisual material broadcast on public airwaves, and its resolution requires balancing of strong competing claims.
Plaintiffs, Universal City Studios, Inc. ("Universal") and Walt Disney Productions, Inc. ("Disney"), are producers and copyright owners of audiovisual material, some of which they choose to sell for telecast over public airwaves. Defendants include the manufacturer, Sony Corporation ("Sony"), and the distributor, Sony Corporation of America ("Sonam"), of the "Betamax," a videotape recorder ("VTR") which can record this telecast off-the-air and make a copy of the audiovisual material which can be viewed at another time. Other corporate defendants are certain retail stores (Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc.; Henry's Camera Corporation; Associated Dry Goods Corporation; and Federated Department Stores, Inc.) which sell the Betamax, and the advertising agency, Doyle Dane Bernbach, Inc. ("DDBI") which promotes it. The only individual defendant is William Griffiths who used his Betamax in his home to copy plaintiffs' broadcast material for his own home use.
Plaintiffs' main contentions are that this recording and that of other individuals infringed their copyrights and that the corporate defendants are either direct or contributory infringers or are vicariously liable for the infringement. Plaintiffs also contend that defendants have interfered with their business relations and unfairly competed with them. Finally, plaintiffs assert that the retail defendants violated copyright law when they recorded portions of plaintiffs' programs to demonstrate the Betamax to a prospective purchaser.
Plaintiffs allege that they will suffer great monetary damage if this infringement is allowed to continue. Defendants contend that home copying for home use is not an infringement and, even if it were, defendants could not be held responsible under any theory of infringement or vicarious liability. The resolution of these issues first requires a determination of whether Congress gave authors monopoly power over this use and, if so, whether the corporate defendants are in any way liable. As will be discussed, these determinations are not easily made. Protection of the public interest requires balancing the need for wide availability of audiovisual works against the need for monetary reward to authors to assure production of these works.
After three years of litigation, five weeks of trial and careful consideration of extensive briefing by both sides, this court finds:
a) Neither the Copyright Act of 1909 ("Old Act") nor the revised Act of 1976 ("New Act") gave copyright holders monopoly power over an individual's off-the-air copying in his home for private, non-commercial use. This
court is not deciding whether tape duplication or copying from pay television is prohibited. Nor is this court ruling on off-the-air recording by individuals or groups for use outside the home.
b) Even if the Copyright Act did prohibit home-use copying, Sony, Sonam, DDBI and the retail stores would not be liable under any of the theories of direct or contributory infringement or vicarious liability.
c) The retail defendants have not infringed plaintiffs' copyrights.
d) Even if home-use copying were infringement and defendants were deemed liable therefor, this court could not grant the injunctive relief requested by plaintiffs.
e) None of the defendants has unfairly competed with plaintiffs or interfered with their advantageous business relations.
In so holding, this court makes the following factual findings.
Plaintiff Universal is a Delaware corporation with its principal place of business in Los Angeles County, California. Universal has done business under its own name and under the names, among others, of Universal Television, Universal Pictures, Universal 16 and United World Films. Universal is a wholly owned subsidiary of MCA, Inc. ("MCA"). Plaintiff Disney is a California corporation with its principal place of business in Orange County, California. Both Universal and Disney produce movies and other audiovisual works for theatrical and television exhibition.
Defendant Sony Corporation is a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the Country of Japan. Sony manufactures the Betamax videotape recorder. Defendant Sony Corporation of America is a New York corporation with its principal office in Los Angeles County, California. Sonam is a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of New York and qualified to do business and doing business in the State of California. Sonam distributes the Betamax in the United States.
Defendants Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc. ("Carter Hawley") and Henry's Camera Corporation ("Henry's Camera") are California corporations. Defendant Associated Dry Goods Corporation ("Associated/Robinson") is a Virginia corporation and defendant Federated Department Stores, Inc. ("Federated/Bullock's") is a Delaware corporation. All of these retail stores (the "retail defendants") do business in Los Angeles County, California and sell the Betamax.
Doyle Dane Bernbach, Inc. is a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of New York, and is and at all times material to this action was, doing business in Los Angeles County, California. DDBI is an advertising agency retained by Sony to advertise the Betamax.
Defendant William Griffiths is a resident and citizen of California and is an owner and user of the Betamax.
Universal produces motion pictures for exhibition in theaters and for television. Some of those released to theaters are subsequently licensed for television exhibition, either to pay television or to network television. Network telecasts generally consist of two or three runs. After network licensing and exhibition, Universal may license its theatrical motion pictures to local television stations in syndication (generally for three to eight runs) and occasionally will then redistribute them to the theaters. Universal also offers some of its theatrical motion pictures or excerpts thereof for rental to consumers, schools and institutions in the "non-theatrical" 16 mm and 8 mm exhibition markets.
Universal also recently began marketing theatrical motion pictures on prerecorded videodiscs. Many of these motion pictures were previously exhibited on television. In the future, Universal plans to release theatrical motion pictures on discs before the first television exhibition as well as after the motion pictures have been televised.
Universal's made-for-television motion pictures consist of television features, weekly series and novels made for television (i. e., "mini-series"). With the exception of "Operation Prime Time," these motion pictures are first exhibited on network television. Universal's first run network licenses of series are usually executed before production starts and are for two showings of each episode in the year of production, with an option to renew for each of the next four years. The number of yearly episodes of a series normally runs from 13 to 22. Universal executives testified at trial that the first run network license fee normally does not cover the cost of production of a series.
In recent years Universal has produced mini-series which are first licensed to a group of approximately 100 local stations under the title...
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