521 F.3d 169 (2nd Cir. 2008), 06-5324, In re World Trade Center Disaster Site Litigation

Docket Nº:Docket No. 06-5324-cv.
Citation:521 F.3d 169
Party Name:In re WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER SITE LITIGATION. William D. McCue, Barry J. Albrecht, Maureen McCue, John Baiano, Vincent McNally, Gina McNally, Lisa Deneau, Janet Healy, Michael Spiller, Frances Hickey, Joseph Healy, Lori Malloy, Leah Spiller, Timothy Villari, Maria Villari, John F. Taggart, Theresa Taggart, William Quinlan, Bertha Quinlan, Jame
Case Date:March 26, 2008
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
 
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521 F.3d 169 (2nd Cir. 2008)

In re WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER SITE LITIGATION.

William D. McCue, Barry J. Albrecht, Maureen McCue, John Baiano, Vincent McNally, Gina McNally, Lisa Deneau, Janet Healy, Michael Spiller, Frances Hickey, Joseph Healy, Lori Malloy, Leah Spiller, Timothy Villari, Maria Villari, John F. Taggart, Theresa Taggart, William Quinlan, Bertha Quinlan, James Sweeney, Kathleen Sweeney, Joan Beyer, Peter Blake, Sharon Blake, James Blake, John M. Deneau, George Lamoreaux, Angela Larosa, Roger Danvers, James Mascarella, Clinton Beyer, Joseph Ariola, Colleen Ariola, Ingrid Lamoreaux, Thomas Magee, Patrick Malloy, Anthony R. Larosa, Jonah Bel, Kim Flechaus, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

John Montalvo, Darlene Montalvo, Thomas Hickey, Thomas Beattie, Chester Botch, John Nimmo, Francis Paul Pursley, Kenneth Roche, Salvatore Sforazza, Christopher Graybill, Mieczyslaw Kosmaczewski, Ewa Kosmaczewski, John Campo, Thomas Burke, Matthew Ostrander, Anthony Buonamini, Frank Defillipo, Deidre Defillipo, Kevin Daly, Lisa Daly, Antonio E. Alvez, Maria E. Alvez, Thomas Maggee, John Feal, Daniel Luge, Non-Respiratory Injured Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

The City of New York and its Contractors, Amec Construction Management, Inc., Amec Earth & Environmental, Inc., Bechtel Associates Professional Corporation, Bechtel Construction, Inc., Bechtel Corporation, Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Bovis Lend Lease, Inc., Bovis Lend Lease LMD, Bovis Lend Lease Interiors, Inc., Bovis Holdings Limited, Bovis International, Inc., Evergreen Recycling of Corona, Plaza Construction Corp., Plaza Construction Management Corp., Tully Construction Co., Inc., Tully Industries Inc., Tully Consulting Corp., Tully Construction Company, Turner Construction Company, Turner Construction Co., Turner Construction International, LLC, Turner/Plaza, A Joint Venture, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Defendants-Appellants,

Jon J. McGillick, Arlene McGillick, Francis Lavery, Kathryn Lavery, Phyliss Costarella, Joseph Falcone, Lenny Dinotte, Cliff Carty, Kathleen Carty, Joseph Scaramuzzino, Kelly M. Miller, Lawrence Ford, Blanca Goffredo, Frank Goffredo, Bernard Stinchcomb, Christine Stinchcomb, Christine Johnson, Robert Johnson Jr., David Nolan, Louise Nolan, Robert Panarella, Herbert Pate, Dewardranth Samaroo, Donald Carson, Gloria Elaine Carson, Andrea Cavicchio, Nicola Cavicchio, Jason Porcaro, Robert Ayers, Dean Curti, Jessie K. Horton, Lawrence Horton, Kevin O'Brien, Patricia O'Brien, Diane Hoch Sankey, William J. Sankey, Jerry O'Connor, Victoria O'Connor, John Quinn, Donald G. Thompson, Renee Thompson, Daniel Leonard, Laura Leonard, Delia Becca, Lance Becca, Gregory A. Forsyth, John Jackson, Tomiann Jackson, Donna Haskell, Frank Haskell, Larrie Placide, Ann Marie Duigan, Patrick Duigan, Michael Macko, Jill Miskanic, John Miskanic, David McDonough, Walter Jensen, Paul Fella, Peter Cosgrave, Theresa Cosgrave, Joann Delgiorno, Christopher Delgiorno, Keith Decaro, Kim Ryan Decaro, Diane Doherty, James Checco, Judy Checco, Jean Imparato, Joseph Imparato, Lane Metro, Nancy Metro, Kevin Farrell, Concetta Zuccaro, John Zuccaro, James Albach, Michael Bell, Shirley Bell, John Boyle, Christine Broome, Robert Broome, Maryann Bubelnik, Thomas J. Bubelnik, Barry Buss, Jeanette Buss, Anthony Devita, Laranie Devita, Diane Donovan, Kenneth Donovan, Ann Marie Duignan, Patrick Duignan, Danielle Eivers, Joseph Eivers, Gregory Forsyth, Rosario Gallagher, Robert Garett, Carol Gavitt, Joseph Gavitt, Francesca Gillam, Thomas Gillam, Patricia Hawkins, Scott Hawkins, Anna Maria Hubner, Barbara Kadnar, James A. Kadnar, Derek Kelly, Catherine Lang, James Lang, Caroline Lavin, Michael Lavin, Alfred Luchetti, Mary Ellen Luchetti, Frank Malone, Dennis McConville, Gail McConville, James McHugh, Margret McHugh, Kenneth Miccio, Cathy Mongiello, Kevin Mongiello, Laura Morello, Marc Morello, Mathew Mulham, Corinne Mulham, Carolyn Mundy, Thomas Mundy, Joseph Murphy, Nancy Murphy, Maureen Nogan, Richard Nogan, John Quevedo, Carol Retundie, Vincent Rivera, Donald Striffler, Mary Jane Striffler, John Tiska, Robert Van Houten, Robin Van Houten, Andrea Weisenburger, Gregg Weisenburger, Michael Welsh, Theresa Welch, John J. Quinn, Attorney, Kenneth J. Strohl, Yajaira Strohl, Arlene Montalvo, Roger Montalvo, Richard Mighdoll, Colleen Ryan, J. Richard Ryan, Richard Ryan, Frank Maisano, Julie Maisano, Arthur S. Davis, Theresa A. Davis, Jo Andrusyczyn, Stanley Andrusyczyn, Hector Rivera, Joseph Bellissimo, Carl Fisher, Jon Marie Fisher, Patrick Donaghy, Susan Allison, Richard Allison, Juan Cubero, Rosa Cubero, Jeanne Kolarik, Mark Bernheimer, Arthur Alessandro, John Delaney, Patrick D'Alliegro, John Botte, Cynthia Shelto, Andersen Allen, Sue Ann Andersen, Cecelia Borcherding, Stephen Borcherding, Marcia Diaz, Charles La Barbera, Catherine Langerin, Philip J. Pfershing, Kevin Reynolds, Lisa Reynolds, Joseph Cardinale, Robert Intartaglia, Christopher Romanski, Raymond Fuscaldo, Donna Donnelly, Stephen Donnelly, Dorothy Foris, George Foris, Jacqueline Cacchioli, Louie Cacchioli, Teresita Cayatano, Patricia Aguglairo, Anthony Aguglairo, Alfred Gaillard, Ernest Medaglia, Susan Medaglia, Lionel Payette, Michelle Payette, Plaintiffs-Appellants,

Tully Environmental Inc., Debtor-Appellant.

Docket No. 06-5324-cv.

United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit

March 26, 2008

Argued: Oct. 1, 2007.

Interlocutory appeal from an order of the Southern District of New York (Hellerstein, J.), entered on October 18, 2006, denying Defendants' motions for judgment on the pleadings on immunity grounds under New York state law, and Defendants' motions for summary judgment on immunity grounds under federal law. Plaintiffs moved to dismiss the appeal for lack of jurisdiction under the final judgment rule. Appeal of the state defenses is dismissed, as the defenses do not fall under the collateral order doctrine. We have jurisdiction over the appeal of the federal defenses, as the Stafford Act confers immunity from suit, and affirm the district court's decision to deny Defendants' motions.

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James E. Tyrrell, Jr., Newark, NJ (Joseph E. Hopkins, James O. Copley, Jason W. Rockwell, Justin S. Strochlic, Jonathan M. Peck, Patton Boggs LLP, on the brief), for Defendants-Appellants The City of New York and its Contractors.

Richard A. Williamson, New York, N.Y. (M. Bradford Stein, Thomas A. Egan, Flemming Zulack Williamson Zauderer LLP, New York, NY, on the brief), for Defendant-Appellant The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Kevin K. Russell, Washington, DC (Amy Howe, Howe & Russell, P.C., Washington, DC; Paul J. Napoli, William H. Groner, Denise A. Rubin, William J. Dubanevich, Christopher R. LoPalo, W. Steven Berman, Worby Groner Edelman & Napoli

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Bern, LLP, East Meadow, NY, on the brief), for Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Brian J. Shoot, New York, N.Y. (Frank V. Floriani, Andrew J. Carboy, Susan M. Jaffe, Wendell Y. Tong, Sullivan Papain Block McGrath & Cannavo, P.C., New York, NY, on the brief), for Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Marion S. Mishkin, Law Office of Marion S. Mishkin, New York, NY, for Plaintiffs-Appellees John Montalvo and Darlene Montalvo, on behalf of the Non-Respiratory Injured Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Peter G. Verniero, Philip S. White, James M. Hirschhorn, David W. Kiefer, Sills Cummis Epstein & Gross, PC, New York, NY, for amici curiae Construction Industry, AIA New York State, Inc., et al., in support of Defendants-Appellants.

John C. Gillespie, Parker McCay P.A., Marlton, NJ, for amicus curiae International Municipal Lawyers Association, in support of Defendants-Appellants.

Eric F. Leon, Lee Ann Stevenson, Andrew R. Dunlap, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, New York, NY, Patrick F. Philbin, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Verizon New York Inc., in support of Defendants-Appellants.

Cheryl A. Harris, Harris & Miranda, LLP, New York, NY, for amicus curiae Certain Members of the United States Congress, in support of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Edward J. Groarke, Stephanie Suarez, Michael D. Bosso, Colleran, O'Hara & Mills, LLP, Garden City, NY, for amici curiae New York State AFL-CIO and Building and Construction Trades Council of Greater New York, in support of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Larry Cary, Cary Kane LLP, New York, NY, for amicus curiae New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health, in support of Plaintiffs-Appellees.

Before: Newman, Sotomayor, and Wesley, Circuit Judges.

Wesley, Circuit Judge

In this appeal, Defendants contend that the district court erred in denying their motions for judgment on the pleadings for immunity under New York state law, and their motions for summary judgment for immunity under federal law. We do not have jurisdiction over the state law immunity claims, as the immunity is from liability, not suit. We do have jurisdiction over the federal claims, and hold that the district court did not err in denying Defendants' motion with respect to these claims. We therefore DISMISS in part, and AFFIRM in part.

Background

A. Procedural History

Plaintiffs are construction workers, firefighters, policemen, and others who were present during the clean-up of the World Trade Center after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In re World Trade Ctr. Disaster Site, 414 F.3d 352, 358 (2d Cir. 2005); In re World Trade Ctr. Disaster Site Litig., 456 F.Supp.2d 520, 557 (S.D.N.Y. 2006). Plaintiffs allege that they "were exposed to toxic fumes and gases and other hazardous conditions, and that they suffered respiratory injuries due to the failure of the City and the Port Authority to monitor those conditions and to provide them with adequate safety equipment, and/or to warn them of the hazards." In re World Trade Ctr. Disaster Site, 414 F.3d at 359.

Plaintiffs filed claims against the City of...

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