521 U.S. 507 (1997), 95-2074, City of Boerne v. Flores

Docket Nº:Case No. 95-2074
Citation:521 U.S. 507, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624, 65 U.S.L.W. 4612
Party Name:CITY OF BOERNE v. FLORES, ARCHBISHOP OF SAN ANTONIO, et al.
Case Date:June 25, 1997
Court:United States Supreme Court

Page 507

521 U.S. 507 (1997)

117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624, 65 U.S.L.W. 4612

CITY OF BOERNE

v.

FLORES, ARCHBISHOP OF SAN ANTONIO, et al.

Case No. 95-2074

United States Supreme Court

June 25, 1997

Argued February 19, 1997

Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

Syllabus

Respondent, the Catholic Archbishop of San Antonio, applied for a building permit to enlarge a church in Boerne, Texas. When local zoning authorities denied the permit, relying on an ordinance governing historic preservation in a district which, they argued, included the church, the Archbishop brought this suit challenging the permit denial under, inter alia, the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 (RFRA). The District Court concluded that by enacting RFRA Congress exceeded the scope of its enforcement power under § 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court certified its order for interlocutory appeal, and the Fifth Circuit reversed, finding RFRA to be constitutional.

Held:

RFRA exceeds Congress' power. Pp. 512-536.

(a) Congress enacted RFRA in direct response to Employment Div., Dept. of Human Resources of Ore. v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872, in which the Court upheld against a free exercise challenge a state law of general applicability criminalizing peyote use, as applied to deny unemployment benefits to Native American Church members who lost their jobs because of such use. In so ruling, the Court declined to apply the balancing test of Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398, which asks whether the law at issue substantially burdens a religious practice and, if so, whether the burden is justified by a compelling government interest. RFRA prohibits "[g]overnment" from "substantially burden[ing]" a person's exercise of religion even if the burden results from a rule of general applicability unless the government can demonstrate the burden "(1) is in furtherance of a compelling governmental interest; and (2) is the least restrictive means of furthering that . . . interest." 42 U.S.C. § 2000bb-1. RFRA's mandate applies to any branch of Federal or State Government, to all officials, and to other persons acting under color of law. § 2000bb-2(1). Its universal coverage includes "all Federal and State law, and the implementation of that law, whether statutory or otherwise, and whether adopted before or after [RFRA's enactment]." § 2000bb-3(a). Pp. 512-516.

(b) In imposing RFRA's requirements on the States, Congress relied on the Fourteenth Amendment, which, inter alia, guarantees that no State shall make or enforce any law depriving any person of "life, liberty,

Page 508

or property, without due process of law," or denying any person the "equal protection of the laws," § 1, and empowers Congress "to enforce" those guarantees by "appropriate legislation," § 5. Respondent Archbishop and the United States contend that RFRA is permissible enforcement legislation under § 5. Although Congress certainly can enact legislation enforcing the constitutional right to the free exercise of religion, see, e. g., Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296, 303, its § 5 power "to enforce" is only preventive or "remedial," South Carolina v. Katzenbach, 383 U.S. 301, 326. The Amendment's design and § 5's text are inconsistent with any suggestion that Congress has the power to decree the substance of the Amendment's restrictions on the States. Legislation which alters the Free Exercise Clause's meaning cannot be said to be enforcing the Clause. Congress does not enforce a constitutional right by changing what the right is. While the line between measures that remedy or prevent unconstitutional actions and measures that make a substantive change in the governing law is not easy to discern, and Congress must have wide latitude in determining where it lies, the distinction exists and must be observed. There must be a congruence and proportionality between the injury to be prevented or remedied and the means adopted to that end. Lacking such a connection, legislation may become substantive in operation and effect. The need to distinguish between remedy and substance is supported by the Fourteenth Amendment's history and this Court's case law, see, e. g., Civil Rights Cases, 109 U.S. 3, 13-14, 15; Oregon v. Mitchell, 400 U.S. 112, 209, 296. The Amendment's design has proved significant also in maintaining the traditional separation of powers between Congress and the Judiciary, depriving Congress of any power to interpret and elaborate on its meaning by conferring self-executing substantive rights against the States, cf. id., at 325, and thereby leaving the interpretive power with the Judiciary. Pp. 516-529.

(c) RFRA is not a proper exercise of Congress' § 5 enforcement power because it contradicts vital principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and the federal-state balance. An instructive comparison may be drawn between RFRA and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, provisions of which were upheld in Katzenbach, supra, and subsequent voting rights cases. In contrast to the record of widespread and persisting racial discrimination which confronted Congress and the Judiciary in those cases, RFRA's legislative record lacks examples of any instances of generally applicable laws passed because of religious bigotry in the past 40 years. Rather, the emphasis of the RFRA hearings was on laws like the one at issue that place incidental burdens on religion. It is difficult to maintain that such laws are based on animus or hostility to the burdened religious practices or that they indicate some widespread

Page 509

pattern of religious discrimination in this country. RFRA's most serious shortcoming, however, lies in the fact that it is so out of proportion to a supposed remedial or preventive object that it cannot be understood as responsive to, or designed to prevent, unconstitutional behavior. It appears, instead, to attempt a substantive change in constitutional protections, proscribing state conduct that the Fourteenth Amendment itself does not prohibit. Its sweeping coverage ensures its intrusion at every level of government, displacing laws and prohibiting official actions of almost every description and regardless of subject matter. Its restrictions apply to every government agency and official, § 2000bb-2(1), and to all statutory or other law, whether adopted before or after its enactment, § 2000bb-3(a). It has no termination date or termination mechanism. Any law is subject to challenge at any time by any individual who claims a substantial burden on his or her free exercise of religion. Such a claim will often be difficult to contest. See Smith, supra, at 887. Requiring a State to demonstrate a compelling interest and show that it has adopted the least restrictive means of achieving that interest is the most demanding test known to constitutional law. 494 U.S., at 888. Furthermore, the least restrictive means requirement was not used in the pre-Smith jurisprudence RFRA purported to codify. All told, RFRA is a considerable congressional intrusion into the States' traditional prerogatives and general authority to regulate for the health and welfare of their citizens, and is not designed to identify and counteract state laws likely to be unconstitutional because of their treatment of religion. Pp. 529-536.

73 F.3d 1352, reversed.

Kennedy, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Rehnquist, C. J., and Stevens, Thomas, and Ginsburg, JJ., joined, and in which Scalia, J., joined as to all but Part III-A-1. Stevens, J., filed a concurring opinion, post, p. 536. Scalia, J., filed an opinion concurring in part, in which Stevens, J., joined, post, p. 537. O'Connor, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Breyer, J., joined except as to the first paragraph of Part I, post, p. 544. Souter, J., post, p. 565, and Breyer, J., post, p. 566, filed dissenting opinions.

Marci A. Hamilton argued the cause for petitioner. With her on the briefs were Lowell F. Denton and Gordon L. Hollon.

Jeffrey S. Sutton, State Solicitor of Ohio, argued the cause for the State of Ohio et al. as amici curiae urging reversal. With him on the brief were Betty D. Montgomery, Attorney

Page 510

General of Ohio, Robert C. Maier and Todd Marti, Assistant Attorneys General, and the Attorneys General for their respective jurisdictions as follows: Malaetasi M. Togafau of American Samoa, Grant Woods of Arizona, Gale A. Norton of Colorado, M. Jane Brady of Delaware, Robert Butterworth of Florida, Calvin Holloway, Sr., of Guam, Margery S. Bronster of Hawaii, Alan G. Lance of Idaho, Mike Moore of Mississippi, Frankie Sue Del Papa of Nevada, Jeffrey R. Howard of New Hampshire, Michael F. Easley of North Carolina, W. A. Drew Edmondson of Oklahoma, Thomas W. Corbett, Jr., of Pennsylvania, and Julio A. Brady of the Virgin Islands.

Douglas Laycock argued the cause for respondent Flores. With him on the brief were Thomas Drought and Patricia J. Schofield. Acting Solicitor General Dellinger argued the cause for the United States. With him on the brief were Assistant Attorney General Hunger, Deputy Solicitor General Waxman, Patricia A. Millett, and Michael Jay Singer. [*]

Page 511

Justice Kennedy delivered the opinion of the Court.[*]

A decision by local zoning authorities to deny a church a building permit was challenged under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 (RFRA or Act), 107 Stat. 1488, 42 U.S. C.§ 2000bb et seq. The case calls into question the authority of Congress to enact RFRA. We conclude the statute exceeds Congress' power.

I

Situated on a hill in the city of Boerne, Texas, some 28 miles northwest of San Antonio, is St. Peter Catholic Church. Built in 1923, the church's structure replicates the mission

Page 512

style of the region's earlier history. The church seats about 230 worshippers, a number too small for its growing parish. Some 40 to 60 parishioners cannot be...

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2110 practice notes
  • Federal Law Protections for Religious Liberty
    • United States
    • Federal Register October 26, 2017
    • October 26, 2017
    ...form of scrutiny identified by the Supreme Court. Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, 508 U.S. at 546; see also City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 534 (1997) (``Requiring a State to demonstrate a compelling interest and show that it has adopted the least restrictive means of achieving tha......
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    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 6th Circuit Southern District of Ohio
    • August 28, 1998
    ...to secure the guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment, and its conclusions are entitled to much deference. See City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 2172, 138 L.Ed.2d 624 (1997) (citing Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641, 651, 86 S.Ct. 1717, 16 L.Ed.2d 828 (1966)). In enact......
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    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 7th Circuit Southern District of Indiana
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    ...Charles A. Wright, Arthur R. Miller & Mary Kay Kane, Federal Practice & Procedure: Civil § 1778. See City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. at 515-16, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624. Here, " Plaintiffs must establish that the common questions of law or fact predominate with respec......
  • 292 F.Supp.3d 1254 (W.D.Okl. 2017), CIV-16-1241-D, Reininger v. State
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 10th Circuit Western District of Oklahoma
    • November 9, 2017
    ...531 U.S. at 364, 121 S.Ct. 955. To make this determination, the Supreme Court announced in City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 529-36, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624 (1997), a case-by-case framework that requires consideration of the following: (1) th......
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  • 19 F.Supp.2d 816 (S.D.Ohio 1998), C-1-96-764, Thrope v. State of Ohio
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 6th Circuit Southern District of Ohio
    • August 28, 1998
    ...to secure the guarantees of the Fourteenth Amendment, and its conclusions are entitled to much deference. See City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 2172, 138 L.Ed.2d 624 (1997) (citing Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641, 651, 86 S.Ct. 1717, 16 L.Ed.2d 828 (1966)). In enact......
  • 203 F.R.D. 403 (S.D.Ind. 2001), IP 99-9310-C-B/S, In re Bromine Antitrust Litigation
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    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 7th Circuit Southern District of Indiana
    • September 28, 2001
    ...Charles A. Wright, Arthur R. Miller & Mary Kay Kane, Federal Practice & Procedure: Civil § 1778. See City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. at 515-16, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624. Here, " Plaintiffs must establish that the common questions of law or fact predominate with respec......
  • 292 F.Supp.3d 1254 (W.D.Okl. 2017), CIV-16-1241-D, Reininger v. State
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 10th Circuit Western District of Oklahoma
    • November 9, 2017
    ...531 U.S. at 364, 121 S.Ct. 955. To make this determination, the Supreme Court announced in City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 529-36, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624 (1997), a case-by-case framework that requires consideration of the following: (1) th......
  • 329 F.Supp.2d 818 (N.D.Miss. 2004), 103 CV 577, Bryant v. Mississippi State University
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    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 5th Circuit Northern District of Mississippi
    • July 20, 2004
    ...Amendment's guarantees, the Supreme Court applies a "congruence and proportionality" analysis. City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 536, 117 S.Ct. 2157, 138 L.Ed.2d 624 Section 5 legislation is valid when there is a "congruence and proportionality between the injury to be ......
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  • A matter of constitutional luck: the general applicability requirement in free exercise jurisprudence.
    • United States
    • Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy Vol. 26 Nbr. 2, March 2003
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    ...the religious practices of a particular employee." Id. (13.) 42 U.S.C. [section] 2000bb (1994). (14.) See City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997). (15.) See Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah, 508 U.S. 520 (1993). (16.) Professor Laycock originally identifie......
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    ...v. College Sav. Bank, 527 U.S. 627 (1999) (the Patent and Plant Variety Protection Remedy Clarification Act); City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997) (the Religious Freedom Restoration Act); United States v. Lopez, 514 U.S. 549 (1995) (the Gun-Free School Zones Act). (2.) 121 S. Ct. 9......
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  • Federal Law Protections for Religious Liberty
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    ...form of scrutiny identified by the Supreme Court. Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, 508 U.S. at 546; see also City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 534 (1997) (``Requiring a State to demonstrate a compelling interest and show that it has adopted the least restrictive means of achieving tha......
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    ...such accommodation. \1\ The Supreme Court has held that RRA is unconstitutional as applied to state governments, City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 117 S.Ct. 2157 (1997), but the question here is the impact of RFRA on the federal government. The American Indian Religious Freedom Act (A......
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    ...U.S. 627 (1999). \20\ Id. at 640. \21\ Id. at 642. \22\ Id. at 643. \23\ Id. at 645. \24\ Id. at 639 (quoting City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507, 520 The Court in Florida Prepaid struck down the Patent Remedy Act for failure to meet these requirements. It concluded that Congress had not......