535 U.S. 137 (2002), 00-1595, Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. v. NLRB
|Docket Nº:||No. 00-1595.|
|Citation:||535 U.S. 137, 122 S.Ct. 1275, 152 L.Ed.2d 271, 70 U.S.L.W. 4205, 70 U.S.L.W. 4209|
|Party Name:||HOFFMAN PLASTIC COMPOUNDS, INC. v. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD|
|Case Date:||March 27, 2002|
|Court:||United States Supreme Court|
Argued January 15, 2002
CERTIORARI TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT
Petitioner hired Jose Castro on the basis of documents appearing to verify his authorization to work in the United States, but laid him and others off after they supported a union-organizing campaign at petitioners plant. Respondent National Labor Relations Board (Board) found that the layoffs violated the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) and ordered backpay and other relief. At a compliance hearing before an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) to determine the amount of backpay, Castro testified, inter alia, that he was born in Mexico, that he had never been legally admitted to, or authorized to work in, this country, and that he gained employment with petitioner only after tendering a birth certificate belonging to a friend born in Texas. Based on this testimony, the ALJ found that the Board was precluded from awarding Castro relief by Sure-Tan, Inc. v. NLRB, 467 U.S. 883, and by the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA), which makes it unlawful for employers knowingly to hire undocumented workers or for employees to use fraudulent documents to establish employment eligibility. The Board reversed with respect to backpay, citing its precedent holding that the most effective way to further the immigration policies embodied in IRCA is to provide the NLRAs protections and remedies to undocumented workers in the same manner as to other employees. The Court of Appeals denied review and enforced the Boards order.
Federal immigration policy, as expressed by Congress in IRCA, foreclosed the Board from awarding backpay to an undocumented alien who has never been legally authorized to work in the United States. Pp. 142152.
(a) This Court has consistently set aside the Boards backpay awards to employees found guilty of serious illegal conduct in connection with their employment. See, e.g., Southern S. S. Co. v. NLRB, 316 U.S. 31, 4047. Since Southern S. S. Co., the Court has never deferred to the Boards remedial preferences where such preferences potentially trench upon federal statutes and policies unrelated to the NLRA. See, e. g., Sure-Tan, supra, in which the Court set aside an award of reinstatement and backpay to undocumented alien workers who were not authorized
to reenter this country following their voluntary departure when their employers unlawfully reported them to the Immigration and Naturalization Service in retaliation for union activity. Among other things, the Court there found that the Boards authority with respect to the selection of remedies was limited by federal immigration policy as expressed in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), and held that, in order to avoid a potential conflict with the INA with respect to backpay, the employees must be deemed unavailable for work (and the accrual of backpay therefore tolled) during any period when they were not lawfully entitled to be present and employed in the United States. 467 U.S., at 903. This case is controlled by the Southern Steamship line of cases. ABF Freight System, Inc. v. NLRB, 510 U.S. 317, 325, distinguished. Pp. 142146.
(b) As a matter of plain language, Sure-Tans express limitation of backpay to documented alien workers forecloses the backpay award to Castro, who was never lawfully entitled to be present or employed in the United States. But the Court need not resolve whether, read in context, Sure-Tans limitation applies only to aliens who left the United States and thus cannot claim backpay without lawful reentry. The question presented here is better analyzed through a wider lens, focusing on a legal landscape now significantly changed. The Southern S. S. Co. line of cases established that where the Boards chosen remedy trenches upon a federal statute or policy outside the Boards competence to administer, the Boards remedy may have to yield. Whether or not this was the situation at the time of Sure-Tan, it is precisely the situation today. Two years after Sure-Tan, Congress enacted IRCA, a comprehensive scheme that made combating the employment of illegal aliens in the United States central to the policy of immigration law. INS v. National Center for Immigrants Rights, Inc., 502 U.S. 183, 194, and n. 8. Among other things, IRCA established an extensive employment verification system, 8 U.S.C. § 1324a(a)(1), designed to deny employment to aliens who (a) are not lawfully present in the United States, or (b) are not lawfully authorized to work in the United States, § 1324a(h)(3). It also makes it a crime for an unauthorized alien to subvert the employer verification system by tendering fraudulent documents, § 1324c(a), an offense that Castro committed when obtaining employment with petitioner. Thus, allowing the Board to award backpay to illegal aliens would unduly trench upon explicit statutory prohibitions critical to federal immigration policy. It would encourage the successful evasion of apprehension by immigration authorities, condone prior violations of the immigration laws, and encourage future violations.
However broad the Boards discretion to fashion remedies when dealing only with the NLRA, it is not so unbounded as to authorize this sort of an award. Lack of authority to award backpay does not mean that the employer gets off scot-free. The Board here has already imposed other significant sanctions against petitioner, including orders that it cease and desist its NLRA violations and conspicuously post a notice detailing employees rights and its prior unfair practices, which are sufficient to effectuate national labor policy regardless of whether backpay accompanies them, Sure-Tan, supra, at 904, and n. 13. Pp. 146152.
237 F.3d 639, reversed.
Rehnquist, C. J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which OConnor, Scalia, Kennedy, and Thomas, JJ., joined. Breyer, J., filed a dissenting opinion, in which Stevens, Souter, and Ginsburg, JJ., joined, post, p. 153.
Ryan D. McCortney argued the cause for petitioner. With him on the briefs was Maurice Baskin.
Paul R. Q. Wolfson argued the cause for respondent. With him on the brief were Solicitor General Olson, Deputy Solicitor General Wallace, Arthur F. Rosenfeld, John H. Ferguson, Norton J. Come, and John Emad Arbab.[*]
Chief Justice Rehnquist delivered the opinion of the Court.
The National Labor Relations Board (Board) awarded backpay to an undocumented alien who has never been legally authorized to work in the United States. We hold that such relief is foreclosed by federal immigration policy, as expressed by Congress in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA).
Petitioner Hoffman Plastic Compounds, Inc. (petitioner or Hoffman), custom-formulates chemical compounds for businesses that manufacture pharmaceutical, construction, and household products. In May 1988, petitioner hired Jose Castro to operate various blending machines that mix and cook the particular formulas per customer order. Before being hired for this position, Castro presented documents that appeared to verify his authorization to work in the United States. In December 1988, the United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum, and Plastic Workers of America, AFLCIO, began a union-organizing campaign at petitioners production plant. Castro and several other employees supported the organizing campaign and distributed authorization cards to co-workers. In January 1989, Hoffman laid off Castro and other employees engaged in these organizing activities.
Three years later, in January 1992, respondent Board found that Hoffman unlawfully selected four employees, including Castro, for layoff in order to rid itself of known union supporters in violation of § 8(a)(3) of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). 306 N. L. R. B. 100. To remedy this violation, the Board ordered that Hoffman (1) cease and desist from further violations of the NLRA, (2) post a detailed notice to its employees regarding the remedial order, and (3) offer reinstatement and backpay to the
four affected employees. Id., at 107108. Hoffman entered into a stipulation with the Boards General Counsel and agreed to abide by the Boards order.
In June 1993, the parties proceeded to a compliance hearing before an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) to determine the amount of backpay owed to each discriminatee. On the final day of the hearing, Castro testified that he was born in Mexico and that he had never been legally admitted to, or authorized to work in, the United States. 314 N. L. R. B. 683, 685 (1994). He admitted gaining employment with Hoffman only after tendering a birth certificate belonging to a friend who was born in Texas. Ibid. He also admitted that he used this birth certificate to fraudulently obtain a California drivers license and a Social Security card, and to fraudulently obtain employment following his layoff by Hoffman. Ibid. Neither Castro nor the Boards General Counsel offered any evidence that Castro had applied or intended to apply for legal authorization to work in the United States. Ibid. Based on this testimony, the ALJ found the Board precluded from awarding Castro backpay or reinstatement as such relief would be contrary to Sure-Tan, Inc. v. NLRB, 467 U.S. 883 (1984), and in conflict with IRCA, which makes it unlawful for employers knowingly to hire undocumented workers or for employees to use fraudulent documents to establish employment eligibility. 314 N. L. R. B., at 685686.
In September 1998, four years after the ALJs decision, and nine years after Castro was fired, the Board reversed with respect to backpay. 326 N....
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