63 F.3d 1318 (4th Cir. 1995), 94-2141, Penn Advertising of Baltimore, Inc. v. Mayor and City Council of Baltimore
|Citation:||63 F.3d 1318|
|Party Name:||PENN ADVERTISING OF BALTIMORE, INCORPORATED, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. MAYOR AND CITY COUNCIL OF BALTIMORE, A Municipal Corporation; Kurt L. Schmoke, in his official capacity as Mayor of Baltimore City; David Tanner, in his official capacity as the General Superintendent of Zoning Administration and Enforcement of Baltimore City, Defendants-Appellees|
|Case Date:||August 31, 1995|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit|
Argued March 6, 1995.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
ARGUED: Eric Michael Rubin, Rubin, Winston, Diercks, Harris & Cooke, Washington, DC, for appellant. Burton Harry Levin, Assistant Solicitor, Baltimore, MD, for appellees. ON BRIEF: Walter E. Diercks, Jeffrey Harris, Rubin, Winston, Diercks, Harris & Cooke, Washington, DC, for appellant. Neal M. Janey, City Solicitor, Sandra R. Gutman, Associate Solicitor, Department of Law, Baltimore, MD, for appellees. Richard E. Wiley, Lawrence W. Secrest, III, Daniel E. Troy, Luis de la Torre, Frank Winston, Jr., Wiley, Rein & Fielding, Washington, DC, for amici curiae American Advertising Federation, et al. Mark S. Yurick, Senior Assistant City Solicitor, Office of the City Solicitor, Cincinnati, OH, for amicus curiae City of Cincinnati. Daniel J. Popeo, Richard A. Samp, Washington Legal Foundation, Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Washington Legal Foundation. Donald Garner, Professor of Law, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL; the Maryland Congress of Parents & Teachers, Inc., Baltimore, MD, for amicus curiae Maryland Congress. Christopher J. Fritz, Julie Ellen Squire, Thomas C. Dame, Gallagher, Evelius & Jones, Baltimore, MD, for amici curiae Coalition for Beautiful Neighborhoods, et al. Louise H. Renne, City Attorney, Dannis Aftergut, Chief Assistant City Attorney, Barbara Solomon, Deputy City Attorney, John Cooper, Deputy City Attorney, San Francisco, CA, for amicus curiae San Francisco; Joan Gallo, City Attorney, George Rios, Assistant City Attorney, San Jose, CA, for amicus curiae San Jose.
Before NIEMEYER and HAMILTON, Circuit Judges, and BUTZNER, Senior Circuit Judge.
Affirmed by published opinion. Judge NIEMEYER wrote the opinion, in which Judge HAMILTON and Senior Judge BUTZNER joined.
NIEMEYER, Circuit Judge:
We must decide in this case (1) whether Ordinance 307 enacted by the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, Maryland, prohibiting the placement of stationary, outdoor "advertising that advertises cigarettes" in certain areas of the City, is preempted by the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act or by Maryland statutes prohibiting the
sale of cigarettes to minors or the possession of cigarettes by minors; and (2) whether that ordinance violates the First and Fourteenth Amendment protections of commercial speech. The district court, granting Baltimore's motion for summary judgment, ruled that neither federal nor state law preempts the operation of Baltimore's ordinance and that the ordinance is a permissible regulation of commercial speech under the four-part test announced in Central Hudson Gas and Elec. Corp. v. Public Serv. Comm'n of N.Y., 447 U.S. 557, 100 S.Ct. 2343, 65 L.Ed.2d 341 (1980). We affirm.
Even before 1994, it was illegal in Maryland for any person to purchase cigarettes for, or sell them to, "any individual under the age of 18 years." Md.Ann.Code art. 27, Sec. 404 (1992). In 1994, Maryland also enacted statutes, effective October 1, 1994, prohibiting minors from using or possessing "any tobacco product." Md.Ann.Code art. 27, Secs. 404 & 405A (Supp.1994). A few months earlier, in April 1994, the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore (collectively "Baltimore"), in a further effort to reduce the illegal consumption of cigarettes by minors, enacted Ordinance 307. The ordinance prohibits the placement of any sign that "advertises cigarettes in a publicly visible location," i.e. on "outdoor billboards, sides of building[s], and free standing signboards." 1 The prohibition contained in Ordinance 307 parallels the scope and language of Baltimore City Ordinance 288, enacted in January 1994, which regulates the advertising of alcoholic beverages. Thus, the prohibition against cigarette advertising in Ordinance 307 mirrors Ordinance 288's exceptions permitting such advertising on buses, taxicabs, commercial vehicles used to transport cigarettes, and signs at businesses licensed to sell cigarettes, including professional sports stadiums. As with Ordinance 288, Ordinance 307 also contains an exception permitting such advertising in certain commercially and industrially zoned areas of the City.
Before enacting the ordinance, the Baltimore City Council conducted public hearings, receiving testimony and previously-conducted studies detailing the correlation between cigarette advertising and the consumption of cigarettes by minors. The City Council found, as expressed in the preamble to Ordinance 307, that cigarettes are the most heavily advertised product in America and that "there is specific and convincing evidence that tobacco advertising plays a significant role in stimulating illegal consumption of cigarettes by minors." It referred specifically to 10 studies and articles supporting that position. The City Council also relied on the 1992 Maryland Adolescent Drug Survey conducted by the Maryland Department of Education to support its conclusion that cigarettes are the second most commonly abused substance by Maryland adolescents, with approximately 42% of twelfth graders and 11% of sixth graders having smoked cigarettes in the previous 12 months. The City Council emphasized further that 75%...
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