645 F.2d 217 (4th Cir. 1981), 80-1400, Moreno v. University of Maryland
|Citation:||645 F.2d 217|
|Party Name:||Juan Carlos MORENO; Juan Pablo Otero; Clare B. Hogg; Renee Otero, Jr., Appellees, v. UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, and John S. Toll, President, University of Maryland, Appellants.|
|Case Date:||March 26, 1981|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit|
Argued Jan. 8, 1981.
David H. Feldman, Robert A. Zarnoch, Asst. Atty. Gen., Baltimore, Md. (Stephen H. Sachs, Atty. Gen. of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., on brief), for appellants.
James R. Bieke, Washington, D. C. (R. James Woolsey, John Townsend Rich, Alfred L. Scanlan, Shea & Gardner, Washington, D. C., on brief), for appellees.
Before WINTER, RUSSELL, and ERVIN, Circuit Judges.
The President of the University of Maryland appeals from the judgment of the district court ordering him to permit plaintiffs to demonstrate their entitlement to "In-State" status for purposes of tuition and other fees charged by the University and to refund the difference between the "Out-of-State" tuition and fees actually paid by plaintiffs and the "In-State" tuition and fees they would have paid had they been permitted to demonstrate their entitlement thereto since July 13, 1976, the date of the district court's original judgment in their favor. We affirm.
Plaintiffs represent a class of individuals holding "G-4" visas who attend the University of Maryland. The named plaintiffs are dependents of foreign national employees of the Inter-American Development Bank and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Employees of these development banks and other international organizations, together with their immediate families, are classified as nonimmigrant aliens in this country under 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a) (15)(G)(iv) (1976). Unlike most nonimmigrant aliens, employees of international organizations often reside permanently in the United States; the development banks, for example, are headquartered in Washington, D. C. Plaintiffs reside in the Maryland suburbs of Washington. Unlike most aliens holding immigrant visas, employees of international organizations are exempt from federal and state income taxation, either by treaty (e. g., Agreement Establishing the Inter-American Development Bank art. XI, § 9(b), (1959) U.S.T. 3029, T.I.A.S. No. 4397; Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development art. VII, § 9(b), 60 Stat. 1440, T.I.A.S. No. 1502 (1945)), or by statute, 22 U.S.C. § 288 (1976). The exemption, however, applies only to "salaries and emoluments" paid by the international organizations. The plaintiffs are subject to federal and state taxation on all other income and to federal, state and local excise, motor vehicle, real estate, retail sales and other taxes and charges.
At the time plaintiffs originally brought this suit in 1975, the University of Maryland had a policy of charging "Out-of-State" students higher tuition and other fees than it charged "In-State" students. It based the determination of "In-State" status on the student's showing of Maryland "domicile." The policy was phrased such that plaintiffs, despite their Maryland residency, could not establish Maryland "domicile," because they were nonimmigrant aliens. Plaintiffs challenged the policy in the district court pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (1976) on the grounds that it denied them...
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