664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir. 1982), 80-3271, Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc.

Docket Nº80-3271 to 80-3273.
Citation664 F.2d 1377
Party NameDaniel J. MURRAY, d/b/a Big Sky Toyota, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. TOYOTA MOTOR DISTRIBUTORS, INC., and Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc., Corporations, Defendants-Appellants.
Case DateJanuary 07, 1982
CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

Page 1377

664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir. 1982)

Daniel J. MURRAY, d/b/a Big Sky Toyota, Plaintiff-Appellee,

v.

TOYOTA MOTOR DISTRIBUTORS, INC., and Toyota Motor Sales,

U.S.A., Inc., Corporations, Defendants-Appellants.

Nos. 80-3271 to 80-3273.

United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit

January 7, 1982

Argued and Submitted Oct. 8, 1981.

Page 1378

Walter E. Huizenga, McLean, Va., amicus curiae for Murray.

William J. Gibbons, Hedlund, Hunter & Lynch, Chicago, Ill., for Toyota Motor Sales.

James R. Safley, Minneapolis, Minn., argued, for plaintiff-appellee; Bradley B. Parrish, Lewiston, Mont., James R. Safley, Minneapolis, Minn., on brief.

Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Montana.

Before BROWNING, Chief Judge, WRIGHT, Circuit Judge, and WEIGEL, [*] District Judge.

PER CURIAM:

Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc. (TMD) and Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. (TMS), respectively distributor and importer of Toyota automobiles in the United States, terminated the Lewistown, Montana, Toyota dealership of Appellee Daniel Murray. Murray brought this suit. TMD and TMS appeal from a judgment entered on a special jury verdict for violations of sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, section 3 of the Clayton Act, and the Automobile Dealers' Day in Court Act. Midland Implement Co., a subdistributor for TMD during part of the time at issue, was not a defendant but was found by the jury to have been a co-conspirator.

1. Single Economic Enterprise

Affiliated corporations that are in substance "a single business unit separated only by the technicality of separate incorporation," are incapable of conspiring under section 1 of the Sherman Act. Knutson v. Daily Review, Inc., 548 F.2d 795, 802 (9th Cir. 1976). Although "common ownership

Page 1379

and control does not liberate corporations from the impact of the antitrust laws," Kiefer-Steward Co. v. Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc., 340 U.S. 211, 215, 71 S.Ct. 259, 261, 95 L.Ed. 219 (1951), "the mere formality of separate incorporation is not, without more, sufficient to provide the capability for conspiracy." Harvey v. Fearless Farris Wholesale, Inc., 589 F.2d 451, 456 (9th Cir. 1979). "In general, affiliated corporations cannot conspire with each other where they function as a single economic unit." Hunt-Wesson Foods, Inc. v. Ragu Foods, Inc., 627 F.2d 919, 927 n.5 (9th Cir...

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25 practice notes
  • 236 F.Supp.2d 1069 (N.D.Cal. 2002), C 99-5286, Hangarter v. Paul Revere Life Ins. Co.
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 9th Circuit Northern District of California
    • 12 novembre 2002
    ...after Unum and Provident combined under the name of UnumProvident. (Tr. 745:2-17). See Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377, 1379-1380 (9th Page 1092 (deposition testimony of unavailable former employee of affiliated company admissible against affiliate with similar moti......
  • 723 P.2d 670 (Ariz. 1986), 18544, Mister Donut of America, Inc. v. Harris
    • United States
    • Arizona Supreme Court of Arizona
    • 23 juillet 1986
    ...under Rule 804(a)(5) and clearly illustrate that the authorities are split. See generally Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377, 1379-80 (9th Cir.1982), cert. denied, 457 U.S. 1106, 102 S.Ct. 2905, 73 L.Ed.2d 1314 (1982); Bailey v. Southern Pacific Transportation Co., 613......
  • 862 F.2d 875 (9th Cir. 1988), 87-4242, Westmont Tractor Co. v. Touche Ross & Co.
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
    • 10 novembre 1988
    ...$4,629,759.00 is $1,543,253. FN5. The actual total of the listed figures is $8,900,119.00. [6] Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir.1982) (per curiam), which Touche cites, is not to the contrary. That court overturned a jury award because it was "[c]ontrary......
  • 447 A.2d 228 (Pa. 1982), Catina v. Maree
    • United States
    • Pennsylvania Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
    • 28 juin 1982
    ...principle also. See, United States of America v. Allain, 671 F.2d 248 (7th Cir. 1982); Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir. 1982); United States of America v. Helmick, 652 F.2d 59 (6th Cir. 1981); United States of America v. Caudle, 606 F.2d 451 (4th Cir. 1979)......
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25 cases
  • 236 F.Supp.2d 1069 (N.D.Cal. 2002), C 99-5286, Hangarter v. Paul Revere Life Ins. Co.
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States District Courts 9th Circuit Northern District of California
    • 12 novembre 2002
    ...after Unum and Provident combined under the name of UnumProvident. (Tr. 745:2-17). See Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377, 1379-1380 (9th Page 1092 (deposition testimony of unavailable former employee of affiliated company admissible against affiliate with similar moti......
  • 723 P.2d 670 (Ariz. 1986), 18544, Mister Donut of America, Inc. v. Harris
    • United States
    • Arizona Supreme Court of Arizona
    • 23 juillet 1986
    ...under Rule 804(a)(5) and clearly illustrate that the authorities are split. See generally Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377, 1379-80 (9th Cir.1982), cert. denied, 457 U.S. 1106, 102 S.Ct. 2905, 73 L.Ed.2d 1314 (1982); Bailey v. Southern Pacific Transportation Co., 613......
  • 862 F.2d 875 (9th Cir. 1988), 87-4242, Westmont Tractor Co. v. Touche Ross & Co.
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Courts of Appeals Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
    • 10 novembre 1988
    ...$4,629,759.00 is $1,543,253. FN5. The actual total of the listed figures is $8,900,119.00. [6] Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir.1982) (per curiam), which Touche cites, is not to the contrary. That court overturned a jury award because it was "[c]ontrary......
  • 447 A.2d 228 (Pa. 1982), Catina v. Maree
    • United States
    • Pennsylvania Supreme Court of Pennsylvania
    • 28 juin 1982
    ...principle also. See, United States of America v. Allain, 671 F.2d 248 (7th Cir. 1982); Murray v. Toyota Motor Distributors, Inc., 664 F.2d 1377 (9th Cir. 1982); United States of America v. Helmick, 652 F.2d 59 (6th Cir. 1981); United States of America v. Caudle, 606 F.2d 451 (4th Cir. 1979)......
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