703 F.3d 636 (4th Cir. 2012), 11-1436, Evans v. Chalmers

Docket Nº:11-1436, 11-1438, 11-1453, 11-1458, 11-1460, 11-1465
Citation:703 F.3d 636
Opinion Judge:DIANA GRIBBON MOTZ, Circuit Judge:
Party Name:David F. EVANS; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. Steven W. CHALMERS; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; Patrick Baker, Defendants-Appellants, and City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison; Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; DNA Security, I
Attorney:Michael A. Vatis, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP, New York, New York, for Appellants. Christopher Nicholas Manning, Williams & Connolly, LLP, Washington, D.C.; Robert Christopher Ekstrand, Ekstrand & Ekstrand, LLP, Durham, North Carolina; Peter A. Patterson, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, Washington, D.C., for App...
Judge Panel:Before WILKINSON, MOTZ, and GREGORY, Circuit Judges. MOTZ, Judge wrote the opinion, in which WILKINSON, Judge concurred and GREGORY, Judge concurred except as to Parts III-B and III-B.1. WILKINSON, Judge wrote a concurring opinion. GREGORY, Judge wrote an opinion concurring in part and dissenting...
Case Date:December 17, 2012
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
 
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Page 636

703 F.3d 636 (4th Cir. 2012)

David F. EVANS; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

Steven W. CHALMERS; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; Patrick Baker, Defendants-Appellants,

and

City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison; Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Defendants.

David F. Evans; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants-Appellants,

and

Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Steven W. Chalmers; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Stephen Mihaich; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan; Patrick Baker, Defendants.

Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants-Appellants,

and

Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor Dzau; City of Durham; Linwood Wilson; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; Stephen Mihaich; David Addison; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants.

Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants-Appellants,

and

Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; The City of Durham, North Carolina; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; David Addison; Mark D. Gottlieb; Benjamin W. Himan; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants, Defendants.

Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

The City of Durham, North Carolina; David Addison; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan, Defendants-Appellants,

and

Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants; Patrick Baker; Steven W. Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants.

Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

City of Durham; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants-Appellants,

and

Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor J. Dzau; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants.

Nos. 11-1436, 11-1438, 11-1453, 11-1458, 11-1460, 11-1465

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit.

December 17, 2012

Argued: Sept. 18, 2012.

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ARGUED:

Michael A. Vatis, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP, New York, New York, for Appellants.

Christopher Nicholas Manning, Williams & Connolly, LLP, Washington, D.C.; Robert Christopher Ekstrand, Ekstrand & Ekstrand, LLP, Durham, North Carolina; Peter A. Patterson, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, Washington, D.C., for Appellees.

ON BRIEF:

Patricia P. Shields, D. Martin Warf, Troutman Sanders, LLP, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellants Steven W. Chalmers, Beverly Council, Ronald Hodge, Jeff Lamb, Michael Ripberger, Lee Russ, and Patrick Baker; Roger E. Warin, Matthew J. Herrington, Leah M. Quadrino, John P. Nolan, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP, Washington, D.C., Reginald B. Gillespie, Jr., Faison & Gillespie, Durham, North Carolina, for the City of Durham; Edwin M. Speas, Jr., Eric P. Stevens, Poyner & Spruill LLP, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellant Mark Gottlieb; Joel M. Craig, Henry W. Sappenfield, Kennon, Craver, PLLC, Durham, North Carolina, for Appellant Benjamin Himan; James B. Maxwell, Maxwell, Freeman & Bowman, PA, Durham, North Carolina, for David Addison.

David S. Rudolf, Rudolf Widenhouse & Fialko, Charlotte, North Carolina, Richard D. Emery, Ilann M. Maazel, Emery Celli Brinckerhoff & Abady LLP, New York, New York, for Appellee Reade Seligmann; Robert M. Cary, Charles Davant IV, Ashley W. Hardin, Williams & Connolly, LLP, Washington, D.C., for Appellees David F. Evans, and Collin Finnerty. William J. Thomas II, Thomas, Ferguson & Mullins, LLP, Durham, North Carolina; Brian S. Koukoutchos, Mandeville, Louisiana; Charles J. Cooper, David H. Thompson, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, Washington, D.C., for Appellees Carrington. Stefanie A. Sparks, Ekstrand & Ekstrand, LLP, Durham, North Carolina, for Appellees McFadyen.

Before WILKINSON, MOTZ, and GREGORY, Circuit Judges.

Affirmed in part, dismissed in part, reversed in part, and remanded by published opinion.

MOTZ, Judge wrote the opinion, in which WILKINSON, Judge concurred and GREGORY, Judge concurred except as to Parts III-B and III-B.1. WILKINSON, Judge wrote a concurring opinion. GREGORY, Judge wrote an opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part.

OPINION

DIANA GRIBBON MOTZ, Circuit Judge:

These appeals arise from allegations that the City of Durham and its officials mishandled false rape charges made against members of the 2005-2006 Duke University lacrosse team. The City and its officials asserted various immunities from suit and on that basis moved to dismiss, or for summary judgment, as to all claims alleged against them. The district court granted those motions in part and denied them in part. The City and its officials appeal. There is no cross-appeal. For the reasons that follow, we affirm in

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part, dismiss in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.

I.

Three groups of plaintiffs brought these cases. We set forth the relevant facts as alleged in their amended complaints. Although the complaints are not identical, they differ only minimally. We note all relevant differences.

A.

According to the amended complaints, on the evening of March 13-14, 2006, many members of the Duke lacrosse team attended a party at the Durham, North Carolina home of team co-captains David Evans, Daniel Flannery, and Matthew Zash. One of the hosts had hired two exotic dancers, Crystal Mangum and Kim Pittman, to perform at the party. Mangum (who appeared to be intoxicated) and Pittman performed only briefly from midnight to 12:04. Approximately forty minutes later, the two women left the party together in...

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