743 F.2d 231 (4th Cir. 1984), 83-1933, In re Knight Pub. Co.
|Citation:||743 F.2d 231|
|Party Name:||In re The KNIGHT PUBLISHING COMPANY d/b/a The Charlotte Observer, Petitioner.|
|Case Date:||September 21, 1984|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit|
Argued May 8, 1984.
Robert H. Pryor, Charlotte, N.C. (Robert B. Cordle, Jonathan E. Buchan, Helms, Mulliss & Johnston, Charlotte, N.C., on brief), for petitioner.
John Stuart Bruce, Asst. U.S. Atty., Raleigh, N.C. (Samuel T. Currin, U.S. Atty., Raleigh, N.C., on brief) and Maria M. Lynch, Raleigh, N.C. (David W. Long, Poyner, Geraghty, Hartsfield & Townsend, Raleigh, N.C., on brief), for respondent.
Before PHILLIPS and CHAPMAN, Circuit Judges, and BUTZNER, Senior Circuit Judge.
BUTZNER, Senior Circuit Judge:
The Knight Publishing Company, contesting the actions of the district court in United States v. Soles, petitions for a writ of mandamus and prohibition. The petition raises three issues: whether the court erred in (1) closing the courtroom to the public, (2) ordering certain court records sealed, and (3) subsequently excising portions of the records before releasing them. We conclude tat the court erred in closing the courtroom and in sealing the records, but it did not err in excising portions of the records.
North Carolina State Senator R.C. Soles was acquitted in a trial that attracted considerable attention from the press. On the first day of trial, Soles filed three motions with supporting affidavits: (1) a motion to dismiss the indictment on grounds of prosecutorial misconduct; (2) a motion for investigation of the prosecutor; and (3) a motion for disclosure of the government's evidence pertaining to other crimes, wrongful acts, and character. All counsel requested that the motions be placed under seal and that any evidentiary hearing to resolve the allegations of misconduct be closed to the public.
The judge, after briefly reviewing the documents, agreed to place the motions under seal and to consider the motion for closure. He told the marshal to be prepared
to close the courtroom the following day. The jury was then selected.
The next morning, the marshal informed those present in the courtroom that the court was closed at the direction of the judge. Knight's reporter asked the marshal if she could speak with the judge before the courtroom was closed in order to object to the closure. The marshal denied the request after conferring with the judge. Court reconvened in the afternoon, open to the public, and the judge told the jury that he and counsel had resolved a number of evidentiary matters in chambers. He also stated that the case would be continued for three days. A consent order entered the same day disclosed that counsel had agreed to the continuance, withdrawal of Soles's motions, and retention of the motions and related papers under seal pending judgment.
Knight filed an objection to closure of the courtroom and requested access to transcripts of any hearing conducted in chambers and to any documents which were filed with the court. After considering the motion, the judge entered an order in which he explained that at the conference in chambers he told counsel that Soles's motions would require a full evidentiary hearing open to the public. The order recited that while the courtroom was closed, "no hearing was conducted. No documentary evidence was offered or accepted. No testimony was presented. No legal arguments were heard by the court." Instead, counsel had conferred among themselves and drafted the consent order withdrawing the motions, maintaining the seal, and continuing the case.
The court directed Knight's counsel to appear at a hearing, which was scheduled 10 days after closure, to state the basis for its objection to closure and sealing of the documents. At the hearing, the court informed Knight that the motions pertained to collateral matters, that they contained material that was highly prejudicial to Soles and the government, and that postponing the trial in order to hear any objections to sealing would have been adverse to the interests of Soles and the government. The court declined to release the...
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