813 F.2d 105 (6th Cir. 1987), 86-5409, United States v. Underhill
|Docket Nº:||86-5409, 86-5412.|
|Citation:||813 F.2d 105|
|Party Name:||UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellant, v. Howard|
|Case Date:||March 06, 1987|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit|
Argued Nov. 11, 1986.
[Copyrighted Material Omitted]
W. Hickman Ewing, Jr. (argued), U.S. Atty., Memphis, Tenn., Frederick H. Godwin, for plaintiff-appellant.
Albert Boyd, Robert M. Friedman, Charles Perry Roney, Butler & Associates, Memphis, Tenn., Robert Stephen Butler, for defendants-appellees in No. 86-5409.
Frank Holloman, James D. Causey (argued), Memphis, Tenn., for defendants-appellees in No. 86-5412.
Before LIVELY, Chief Judge, and KEITH and MERRITT, Circuit Judges.
LIVELY, Chief Judge.
The question for decision is whether the participants in an illegal gambling business, some of whom caused their telephone conversations to be intercepted and recorded, are entitled to have these recordings suppressed during a prosecution for violation of federal anti-gambling statutes. The answer depends on our construction of various provisions of the Federal Wiretap Act, Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2510, et seq. (1982) (Title III or the Act).
The exclusionary provision of Title III is contained in 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2515:
Whenever any wire or oral communication has been intercepted, no part of the contents of such communication and no evidence derived therefrom may be received in evidence in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in or before any court, grand jury, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, legislative committee, or other authority of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision thereof if the disclosure of that information would be in violation of this chapter.
Section 2515 is not self-executing. The Act provides that any "aggrieved person" may move to suppress the contents of an intercepted communication on the ground, inter alia, that "the communication was unlawfuly intercepted...." 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2518(10)(a)(i). An aggrieved person is one "who was a party to any intercepted wire or oral communication or a person against whom the interception was directed." 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2510(11).
The defendants in this criminal prosecution made timely motions to suppress tapes in the possession of the government on the ground that they were recordings of telephone conversations that had been illegally intercepted. Following an evidentiary hearing the district court concluded that Sec. 2515 required suppression and granted the motions. The United States has appealed pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Sec. 3731 and we now reverse.
The appellees, along with others not before this court, were indicted by a federal grand jury in the Western District of Tennessee for conspiracy and various substantive offenses related to the ownership and operation of an illegal gambling business. When federal agents searched an apartment leased by the defendant Daniel Rokitka they found a great deal of gambling paraphernalia. They also observed tape recorders attached to the two telephones in the apartment and seized fifteen audio cassette tapes. FBI agent Richard Gray, who listened to the tapes, testified at the suppression hearing that the recorded conversations involved the exchange of gambling information and the placing of bets on sporting events. Agent Gray also stated that the telephones were manned by defendants Rokitka and Underhill, and the recordings contained conversations with defendants Person, Tata, Rayburn and Eddie and Joe Osborne.
Unless there is a specific section of the statute which excepts a particular interception, all willful interceptions of wire and oral communications are prohibited by the Act. 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2511(1)(a). Willful disclosure of the contents of communications by a person who knows or has reason to know that the information was obtained through an unlawful interception is also forbidden. 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2511(1)(c). The exceptions to the general proscription against interceptions are contained in 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2511(2). The defendants contend that the only exception which could render the tapes legal and therefore admissible does not apply
because of the purpose for which the recordings were made. They refer to 18 U.S.C. Sec. 2511(2)(d):
(d) It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for a person not acting under color of law to intercept a wire or oral communication where such person is a party to the communication or where one of the parties to the communication has given prior consent to such interception unless such communication is intercepted for the purpose of committing any criminal or tortious act in violation of the Constitution or laws of the United States or of any State or for the purpose of committing any other injurious act.
There was no dispute at the suppression hearing over the purpose of the interceptions. Agent Gray testified that he had interviewed defendant Rokitka in the presence of an attorney, and Rokitka stated that the purpose of the tapes was to record the bets as made, in order to prevent disagreements with bettors over the amount of their wagers. Also, on one of the tapes Underhill told the other party to a telephone conversation that he recorded everything to correct the problem of bettors trying to change the amounts of their bets after losing. One of the statutes under which the defendants were indicted, 18 U.S.C. Sec. 1955, makes it a crime to carry on a gambling business which is a violation of the law of the state in which it is conducted. Tennessee has laws which make gambling illegal, including one against making or possessing gambling records. Tennessee Code Annotated (TCA) Sec...
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