827 F.2d 859 (1st Cir. 1987), 87-1134, Polyplastics, Inc. v. Transconex, Inc.
|Citation:||827 F.2d 859|
|Party Name:||POLYPLASTICS, INC., Plaintiff, Appellee, v. TRANSCONEX, INC., Defendant, Appellant.|
|Case Date:||September 03, 1987|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the First Circuit|
Heard July 31, 1987.
Fernando Castro with whom Roberto Boneta and Trias, Doval, Munoz, Acevedo & Otero, Hato Rey, P.R., were on brief, for appellant.
Edelmiro Salas Garcia, Santurce, P.R., for appellee.
Before BOWNES, TORRUELLA and SELYA, Circuit Judges.
SELYA, Circuit Judge.
Transconex, Inc. (Transconex), defendant/appellant, is a so-called non-vessel-operating common carrier (NVOCC), which does business essentially as a freight forwarder. In the usual course, an NVOCC assembles small lots into a single large container at a determinate point of origin for shipment and handling by an ocean carrier to a specified destination. The freight forwarder arranges for the bulk load to be broken down dock-side or moved inland to a dispersal point, as circumstances warrant. In either event, the container is unloaded by the NVOCC's agents or contractors, and the goods delivered to the individual consignees. As a freight forwarder, an NVOCC is considered the "carrier." See 49 U.S.C. Sec. 11707(a)(2); see also Fireman's Fund American Insurance Companies v. Puerto Rican Forwarding Co., 492 F.2d 1294, 1295 (1st Cir.1974). Vis-a-vis the owner, the forwarder retains primary responsibility for carriage of the goods from origin to destination (both by water and by land).
In December 1980, Polyplastics, Inc. (Polyplastics), plaintiff/appellee, purchased a used trailer from Fruehauf Corporation (Fruehauf). Faced with the necessity of bringing its acquisition from Fruehauf's yard in Miami, Florida to Polyplastics's plant in Humacao, Puerto Rico, the appellee sought Transconex's assistance. Transconex made Polyplastics's problem its own, and agreed to deliver the trailer--which it promptly lost. Polyplastics duly tendered claim against Transconex. The latter steadfastly refused to pay what the appellee thought its trailer was worth. Polyplastics sued. The case was tried jury-waived. The district court found for the plaintiff in an amount equal to the price which Fruehauf charged Polyplastics for the trailer. Transconex appealed.
Following a bench trial, we can disturb the findings of the court only if clearly erroneous or contrary to law. Fed.R.Civ.P. 52(a). And, we need not limit ourselves to the exact grounds for decision utilized below. We are free, on appeal, to
affirm a judgment on any independently sufficient ground. Chongris v. Board of Appeals, 811 F.2d 36, 37 n. 1 (1st Cir.), cert. denied, --- U.S. ----, 107 S.Ct. 3266, 97 L.Ed.2d 765 (1987); Casagrande v. Agoritsas, 748 F.2d 47, 48 n. 1 (1st Cir.1984) (per curiam). A review of the (rather scanty) evidence in this case persuades us that we hold no brief to disturb the verdict.
There were but two witnesses at the trial: Gabriel Espases, president of Polyplastics, and Rafael Catinchi, a Transconex executive. The underlying facts are largely undisputed. The trailer was at Fruehauf's yard in Miami and Polyplastics wanted it moved to Humacao. Therefore, Espases called Transconex to make shipping arrangements. He was quoted two prices for transportation. One--presumably the scheduled rate--was in excess of $2500. The second was a special rate negotiated between the parties which contemplated allowing appellant to treat the trailer not as ordinary freight, but to use it as a shipping container for transporting other wares. The parties settled on the double-duty arrangement and on a flat fee of $500.
Transconex then wrote up the paperwork unilaterally in the traffic department of its Miami office. It chose not to complete much of the cargo-specific information on its own form, leaving the boxes for such data as "rate," "measurements," and "weight" untouched. Catinchi specifically denied that his firm acted as the plaintiff's agent in inscribing and processing the bills of lading and other documents. Supplemental Record Appendix (SRA) at 37. No value was stated for the trailer; indeed, the applicable boxes on the bill of lading form--"FOB Value," "Insured Value," etc.--were left blank. No documents were signed by Polyplastics; in particular, Transconex's standard instruction form (Exhibit B), which is designed for the joint signatures of the owner and the carrier, was neither filled out nor presented to the appellee for execution. Catinchi testified that, if his company's customary practice was followed, a duplicate original of Exhibit A (the bill...
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