830 F.3d 579 (D.C. Cir. 2016), 11-1108, United States Sugar Corp. v. Environmental Protection Agency

Docket Nº:11-1108, 11-1124, 11-1134, 11-1142, 11-1145, 11-1159, 11-1165, 11-1172, 11-1174, 11-1181, 13-1086, 13-1087, 13-1091, 13-1092, 13-1096, 13-1097, 13-1098, 13-1099, 13-1100, 13-1103, 11-1125, 11-1140, 11-1144, 11-1154, 11-1155, 11-1161, 11-1171, 11-1173, 11-1180, 11-1183, 11-1188, 13-1111, 13-1113, 13-1114, 13-1116, 13-1118, 13-1119, 13-1120, 13-1121,
Citation:830 F.3d 579
Opinion Judge:Per Curiam
Party Name:UNITED STATES SUGAR CORPORATION, PETITIONER v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT, AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, ET AL., INTERVENORS; AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION, ET AL., PETITIONERS v. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT, AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, ET AL., INTERVENORS; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, PETITIONER v. ENVIRONMENTAL
Attorney:William L. Wehrum Jr., David M. Friedland, and Douglas A. McWilliams argued the causes for Industry Petitioners. With them on the briefs were Allen A. Kacenjar, Katy M. Franz, Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Peter H. Wyckoff, Claudia M. O'Brien, Stacey L. VanBelleghem, Eli Hopson, Jane C. Lu...
Judge Panel:Before: HENDERSON, BROWN, and GRIFFITH, Circuit Judges.
Case Date:July 29, 2016
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
 
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Page 579

830 F.3d 579 (D.C. Cir. 2016)

UNITED STATES SUGAR CORPORATION, PETITIONER

v.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT,

AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, ET AL., INTERVENORS;

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION, ET AL., PETITIONERS

v.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT,

AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, ET AL., INTERVENORS;

AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, PETITIONER

v.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, RESPONDENT,

AMERICAN FOREST & PAPER ASSOCIATION, ET AL., INTERVENORS

Nos. 11-1108, 11-1124, 11-1134, 11-1142, 11-1145, 11-1159, 11-1165, 11-1172, 11-1174, 11-1181, 13-1086, 13-1087, 13-1091, 13-1092, 13-1096, 13-1097, 13-1098, 13-1099, 13-1100, 13-1103, 11-1125, 11-1140, 11-1144, 11-1154, 11-1155, 11-1161, 11-1171, 11-1173, 11-1180, 11-1183, 11-1188, 13-1111, 13-1113, 13-1114, 13-1116, 13-1118, 13-1119, 13-1120, 13-1121, 13-1123, 13-1124, 13-1127, 11-1141, 11-1182, 11-1207, 11-1208, 13-1105, 13-1107

United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit

July 29, 2016

Argued December 3, 2015

On Petitions for Review of Final Action of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

William L. Wehrum Jr., David M. Friedland, and Douglas A. McWilliams argued the causes for Industry Petitioners. With them on the briefs were Allen A. Kacenjar, Katy M. Franz, Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Peter H. Wyckoff, Claudia M. O'Brien, Stacey L. VanBelleghem, Eli Hopson, Jane C. Luxton, Lauren E. Freeman, Elizabeth L. Horner, William F. Lane, Alan H. McConnell, Timothy S. Bishop, Kevin G. Desharnais, Chad M. Clamage, Ronald A. Shipley, Quentin Riegel, Linda E. Kelly, and Jeffrey A. Knight. Rachel Brand, Leslie A. Hulse, Harry M. Ng, Scott J. Stone, John P. Wagner, and Lee B. Zeugin entered appearances.

James S. Pew and Sanjay Narayan were on the briefs for Environmental Petitioners. Neil Gormley entered an appearance.

Perry M. Rosen and Norman L. Rave, Jr., Attorneys, U.S. Department of Justice, argued the causes for respondent. With them on the brief was John C. Cruden, Assistant Attorney General, and Norman L. Rave, Jr., Attorney. Sam Hirsch and Madeline P. Fleisher, Attorneys, entered appearances.

James S. Pew and Neil Gormley argued the causes for Environmental Respondent-Intervenors. With them on the briefs was Sanjay Narayan.

William L. Wehrum, Quentin Riegel, Linda E. Kelly, Patrick Forrest, Douglas A. McWilliams, Peter H. Wyckoff, Jeffrey A. Knight, Claudia M. O'Brien, Stacey L. VanBelleghem, Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, David M. Friedland, William F. Lane, Alan H. McConnell, Ronald A. Shipley, Carol F. McCabe, Suzanne Ilene Schiller, Michael Dillon, Charles Howland Knauss, Shannon S. Broome, Timothy S. Bishop, Kevin G. Desharnais, Chad M. Clamage, Lauren E. Freeman, Elizabeth L. Horner, Larry B. Alexander, and Leslie A. Hulse were on the brief for Industry Intervenor-Respondents. Allen A. Kacenjar Jr., Rachel L. Brand, Harry M. Ng, Scott J. Stone, John P. Wagner, and Lee B. Zeugin entered appearances.

William L. Wehrum, Douglas A. McWilliams, and Jason T. Morgan argued the causes for Industry Petitioners. On the briefs were Richard G. Stoll, Leslie A. Hulse, Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Peter H. Wyckoff, Jeffrey A. Knight, David M. Friedland, Jessalee Landfried, Michael B. Wigmore, Ronald A. Shipley, Chet M. Thompson, Linda E. Kelly, Quentin Riegel, William F. Lane, Alan H. McConnell, Carol F. McCabe, Suzanne Ilene Schiller, and Michael Dillon. David Y. Chung, Rachel L. Brand, Julia L. German, Jeffrey W. Leppo, and Jane C. Luxton entered appearances.

Neil Gormley and James S. Pew argued the causes and filed the briefs for Environmental Petitioners.

Perry M. Rosen and Norman L. Rave, Jr., Attorneys, U.S. Department of Justice, argued the causes for respondent. With them on the brief was John C. Cruden, Assistant Attorney General. Madeline P. Fleisher, Attorney, entered an appearance.

James S. Pew and Neil Gormley argued the causes and filed the briefs for Environmental Respondent-Intervenors.

David M. Friedland and William L. Wehrum argued the causes for Industry Intervenor-Respondents. With them on the briefs were Jessalee Landfried, Leslie A. Hulse, Richard G. Stoll, Ronald A. Shipley, William F. Lane, Alan H. McConnell, James T. Morgan, Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Jeffrey A. Knight, Shannon S. Broome, Carol McCabe, Suzanne Ilene Schiller, Michael Dillon, Linda E. Kelly, Quentin Riegel, and Charles H. Knauss. Scott J. Stone, Lori A. Rubin, and Jeffrey W. Leppo entered appearances.

William L. Wehrum and David M. Friedland argued the causes for Industry Petitioners. On the briefs were Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Jeffrey A. Knight, Quentin Riegel, and Leslie A. Hulse. Harry M. Ng, Scott J. Stone, and John P. Wagner entered appearances.

Neil Gormley argued the cause for Environmental Petitioners. With him on the briefs was James S. Pew.

Perry M. Rosen and Norman L. Rave, Jr., Attorneys, U.S. Department of Justice, argued the causes for respondent. With them on the brief was John C. Cruden, Assistant Attorney General. Madeline P. Fleisher, Attorney, entered an appearance.

David M. Friedland and William L. Wehrum argued the causes for Industry Intervenor-Respondents. With them on the briefs were Lisa Marie Jaeger, Sandra Y. Snyder, Jeffrey A. Knight, William F. Pedersen, Pamela A. Lacey, William F. Lane, Linda E. Kelly, Quentin Riegel, James W. Conrad, Jr., and Leslie A. Hulse. Harry M. Ng, Scott J. Stone, John P. Wagner, and Nidhi J. Thakar entered appearances.

James S. Pew and Neil Gormley were on the brief for Environmental Respondent-Intervenors.

Before: HENDERSON, BROWN, and GRIFFITH, Circuit Judges.

OPINION

Per Curiam

In these consolidated petitions for review, we address approximately thirty challenges to three regulations promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency): (1) the " Major Boilers Rule," 1 (2) the " Area Boilers Rule," 2 and (3) the " Commercial/Industrial Solid Waste Incinerators (CISWI) Rule." 3 Collectively, these rules--all promulgated under the Clean Air Act (CAA or Act), 42 U.S.C. § § 7401 et seq. --set emissions limits on certain combustion machinery known to release hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Roughly one-half of the challenges are advanced by a group of municipal-electric organizations, industrial-trade associations, oil-and-gas industry representatives, and other entities that own and operate boilers, process heaters, and incinerators (Industry Petitioners). The other one-half are pressed by organizations interested in safeguarding the environment (Environmental Petitioners).

I. BACKGROUND

The three rules at issue address a common phenomenon: when combustion occurs, emissions result. The emissions include numerous materials, some of which pose risks to the environment in general and to human health in particular. Because combustion is an inevitable occurrence in the machinery that helps to power modern society, the Congress has authorized the EPA to provide for a regulatory framework that minimizes the deleterious effects of the incineration industry while simultaneously allowing it to operate.

In 2013, the EPA finalized its efforts to do so for discrete types of combustion machinery: boilers, process heaters, and incinerators. Two of the three rules at issue--the Major Boilers Rule and the Area Boilers Rule--govern boilers and process heaters. The former are enclosed devices that use a controlled flame to heat water and convert it into steam or hot water. 40 C.F.R. § 63.11237. The latter are also enclosed devices that use a controlled flame but, instead of generating steam, they indirectly heat a " process material," whether liquid, gas, or solid, or a " heat transfer material" like glycol or a mixture of glycol and water. Id. For simplicity, our use of " boilers" covers both machinery types.

The two boiler-specific rules further divide the machinery into three categories: industrial, commercial, and institutional. See 2011 Area Boilers Rule, 76 Fed.Reg. at 15,557. Industrial boilers are used for manufacturing, processing, mining, refining, and other similar operations. See id. Commercial boilers are used by shopping malls, laundromats, apartment complexes, restaurants, and hotels. See id. And institutional boilers include those used by, e.g., medical centers, schools, churches, prisons, and courthouses. See id. Collectively, over 200,000 boilers at over 100,000 separate facilities must comply with the standards set out in the Major Boilers Rule or the Area Boilers Rule.

The third rule that we address-- the CISWI Rule--governs combustion machinery known as " solid waste incineration unit[s]." 42 U.S.C. § 7429. The Act defines an incinerator as a " distinct operating unit of any facility" that burns solid waste from either...

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