831 F.2d 843 (9th Cir. 1987), 86-3727, International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots v. Andrews
|Citation:||831 F.2d 843|
|Party Name:||INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MASTERS, MATES & PILOTS; Pacific Maritime Association, a labor organization; Kurt K. Petrich; Robert W. Seidman, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Eleanor ANDREWS, Commissioner of Administration of the State of Alaska; Richard J. Knapp, Commissioner of the Department of Transportation and Public Facilities of the State|
|Case Date:||October 29, 1987|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit|
Argued and Submitted Jan. 7, 1987.
Richard S. Oettinger, Seattle, Wash., for plaintiffs-appellants Intern. Organization of Master, Mates & Pilots, and Pacific Maritime Ass'n.
Kelby D. Fletcher, Seattle, Wash., for plaintiffs-appellants Petrich, et al.
Jam Hart DeYoung, Anchorage, Alaska, for defendants-appellees Andrews, et al.
Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Alaska.
Before WRIGHT, FARRIS and BEEZER, Circuit Judges.
BEEZER, Circuit Judge:
The International Organization of Masters, Mates & Pilots (IOMM & P) and members of the Inland Boatman's Union (the Petrich plaintiffs) appeal from judgment upholding an Alaska statute granting cost of living wage adjustments to resident, but not nonresident employees of the Alaska Marine Highway System (AMHS). The district judge held that AS 23.40.210 does not violate the Privileges and Immunities Clause, the right to travel, the Commerce Clause, or the Equal Protection Clause. We affirm. 1
The State of Alaska owns and operates the Marine Highway System. AMHS vessels call regularly at Seattle. The AMHS is the only surface transportation connecting many communities along the Alaska coast. The IOMM & P represents deck officers employed by AMHS. Kurt Petrich and other named plaintiffs in this action are employed as deck hands for AMHS and are represented by the IBU. The IBU is not a party to this action. Both the IOMM & P and the Petrich plaintiffs (hereafter collectively referred to as "Appellants") include Washington resident employees of AMHS.
Alaska Statute 23.40.210 requires that every labor agreement between public employers in Alaska and any labor organization
provide that wages of nonresident employees not increase until the difference between wages paid to residents and wages paid to nonresidents "reflects the difference between the cost of living in Alaska and living in Seattle, Washington." The purpose of AS 23.40.210 is to encourage Alaska residents to seek employment with AMHS. AS 23.40.210 has been incorporated into current labor agreements between AMHS and the IOMM & P and AMHS and the IBU.
Appellants sued under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 1983 for declaration that AS 23.40.210 and corresponding provisions of labor agreements violated the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, the right to travel, the Commerce Clause, and the Equal Protection Clause. 2 The district court upheld AS 23.40.210 against the constitutional challenges. Int'l Org. of Masters, Mates & Pilots v. Andrews, 626 F.Supp. 1271 (D.Alaska 1986).
Jurisdiction and Standard of Review
The district court had jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1343. We have jurisdiction under 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1291. This appeal presents mixed questions of fact and constitutional law. We review the district court's determinations de novo. ACORN v. City of Phoenix, 798 F.2d 1260, 1263 (9th Cir.1986)
Appellants claim that AS 23.40.210 violates the Privileges and Immunities Clause of Article IV, Section 2, the Commerce Clause, and the right to travel as embodied in the Constitution. We address each argument in turn.
Privileges and Immunities
Article IV, Section 2, Clause 1 of the Constitution provides that "Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States." The purpose of this clause is,
to place the citizens of each State upon the same footing with citizens of other States, so far as the advantages resulting...
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