835 F.3d 1363 (11th Cir. 2016), 15-13721, Parker v. American Traffic Solutions, Inc.

Docket Nº:15-13721
Citation:835 F.3d 1363, 26 Fla.L.Weekly Fed. C 735
Opinion Judge:JULIE CARNES JUDGE.
Party Name:CHRISTOPHER L. PARKER, MARWA MOUSSA, individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, EDUARDO ZEITUNE, ANGEL LUIS LAZO-PEREZ, ERIK BARTENHAGEN, et al., Plaintiffs--Appellees, v. AMERICAN TRAFFIC SOLUTIONS, INC., et al., Defendants, CITY OF APOPKA, CITY OF AVENTURA, VILLAGE OF BAL HARBOUR, CITY OF BOCA RATON, CITY OF BOYNTON BEACH, CITY OF B
Attorney:For CHRISTOPHER L. PARKER, MARWA MOUSSA, individually and on behalf of others similarly-situated, Plaintiffs: Stephen F. Rosenthal, Podhurst Orseck, PA, MIAMI, FL; Andrew N. Friedman, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll, PLLC WASHINGTON, DC; Sally Handmaker, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll, PLLC WASHINGT...
Judge Panel:Before WILSON and JULIE CARNES, Circuit Judges, and MOORE,[*] District Judge.
Case Date:August 31, 2016
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit
 
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Page 1363

835 F.3d 1363 (11th Cir. 2016)

Christopher L. Parker, Marwa Moussa, individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, Eduardo Zeitune, Angel Luis Lazo-Perez, Erik Bartenhagen, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellees,

v.

American Traffic Solutions, Inc., et al., Defendants,

City of Apopka, City of Aventura, Village of Bal Harbour, City of Boca Raton, City of Boynton Beach, City of Brooksville, Town of Campbellton, City of Clermont, City of Clewiston, City of Cocoa Beach, City of Coral Gables, City of Coral Springs, Town of Cutler Bay, Town of Davie, City of Daytona Beach, City of Doral, Village of El Portal, City of Florida City, City of Fort Lauderdale, City of Green Cove Springs, City of Groveland, City of Gulfport, City of Haines City, City of Hallandale Beach, City of Hialeah, City of Hialeah Gardens, Hillsborough County, City of Hollywood, City of Holly Hill, City of Homestead, Town of Juno Beach, City of Kenneth City, Town of Key Biscane, City of Lakeland, City of Lauderdale Lakes, City of Maitland, Manatee County, City of Margate, Town of Medley, City of Miami, City Ofmiami Beach, City of Miami Gardens, City of Miami Springs, City of Milton, City of New Port Richey, City of North Bay Village, City of North Miami, City of North Miami Beach, City of Ocoee, City of Oldsmar, City of Opa-Locka, Orange County, Town of Orange Park, City of Orlando, Osceola County, City of Palatka, Palm Beach County, City of Palm Coast, City of Pembroke Pines, Village of Palm Springs, City of Port Richey, City of Sarasota, City of South Pasadena, City of St. Petersburg, City of Sunrise, Town of Surfside, City of Sweetwater, City of Tamarac, City of Temple Terrace, City of West Miami, City of West Palm Beach, City of West Park, Defendants-Appellants.

No. 15-13721

United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit

August 31, 2016

         Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, D.C. Docket No. 1:14-cv-24010-FAM

         Stephen F. Rosenthal, Ramon A. Rasco, Podhurst Orseck, PA, Andrew T. Trailor, Andrew T. Trailor, PA, Miami, FL, Andrew N. Friedman, Sally Handmaker, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll, PLLC, Washington, DC, Leslie Kroeger, Theodore Jon Leopold, Diana L. Martin, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll, PLLC, Palm Bch Gdns, FL, Rafael Enrique Millares, Estrella Ticket Defense Law Firm, PA, Coral Gables, FL, for Plaintiffs-Appellees.

         Edward George Guedes, Matthew H. Mandel, Adam A. Schwartzbaum, Samuel I. Zeskind, Weiss Serota Helfman Cole & Bierman, P.L., Coral Gables, FL, Samuel I. Zeskind, Matthew H. Mandel, Arnstein & Lehr, LLP, Edmund Bruce Johnson, Christopher J. Stearns, Johnson Anselmo Murdoch Burke Piper & Hochman, PA, Shana H. Bridgeman, Michael David Cirullo, Jr., Tracey A. DeCarlo, Goren Cherof Doody & Ezrol, PA, Samuel S. Goren, Josias & Goren, PA, Fort Lauderdale, FL, Andrew I. Dayes, Donovan Adam Roper, Roper & Roper, PA, Apopka, FL, Joseph A. Poblick, Zephyrhills, FL, Robert L. Switkes, Robert L. Switkes & Associates, PA, Aleksandr Boksner, Robert F. Rosenwald, City Attorney’s Office of Miami Beach, Miami Beach, FL, Patricia Leigh McMillan Minoux, Wallace Wood Properties, LLC / Vanguard Productions, LLC, Mesquite, TX, Helene Catherine Hvizd, Amy Taylor Petrick, Palm Beach County Attorney’s Office, Dana Collier Herst, Dana Collier-Herst, Christopher Van Hall, Office of the City Attorney, West Palm Beach, FL, Joseph Paul Patner, Office of the City Attorney, Saint Petersburg, FL, Elaine Dawn Walter, Mark Rocco Antonelli, Devang Desai, Joseph M. Winsby, Gaebe Mullen Antonelli & DiMatteo, Coral Gables, FL, Michael P. Spellman, Lisa Barclay Fountain, Sniffen & Spellman, PA, Tallahassee, FL, for Defendants-Appellants.

         Ervin A. Gonzalez, Patrick S. Montoya, Colson Hicks Eidson, Coral Gables, FL, Theodore Jon Leopold, Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll, PLLC, Palm Bch Gdns, FL, Ramon A. Rasco, Stephen F. Rosenthal, Podhurst Orseck, PA, Miami, FL, Marc A. Wites, Wites & Kapetan, PA, Lighthouse Pt, FL, for Annie Migdal.

         David Matthew Allen, Jonathan Zachary DeSantis, Kevin P. McCoy, Carlton Fields Jorden Burt, PA, Tampa, FL, Edward Robert McCarthy, Edward Soto, Weil Gotshal & Manges, LLP, Thomas John Meeks, Carlton Fields Jorden Burt, PA, Miami, FL, for American Traffic Solutions, Inc.

         Chris Bator, Baker & Hostetler, LLP, Cleveland, OH, Jerry Dean Hamilton, Hamilton Miller & Birthisel, LLP, Miami, FL, Krista Anne Sivick, Baker & Hostetler, LLP, Orlando, FL, for Xerox State & Local Solutions, Inc., f.k.a. ACS State & Local Solutions.

         Christina Bredahl, Cole Scott & Kissane, PA, Orlando, FL, for Gatso USA, Inc.

         John Bajger, Attorney General’s Office, West Palm Beach, FL, for Marshall Stranburg, Individually and as Executive Director of the Florida Department of Revenue.

         Jeffrey Dale Jensen, Thomas Robert Unice, Jr., Unice Salzman Radel, PA, Palm Harbor, FL, for City of Bradenton.

         Andrew P. Lannon, Patricia Denise Smith, Office of the City Attorney, Palm Bay, FL, for City of Palm Bay.

         Jerry M. Gewirtz, Robin Horton Silverman, Office of the Tampa City Attorney, Tampa, FL, for City of Tampa, FL.

         Usher L. Brown, Garganese Weiss & D’ Agresta, PA, Orlando, FL, Thomas Robert Unice, Jr., Unice Salzman Radel, PA, Palm Harbor, FL, for City of Winter Park, FL.

         Before WILSON and JULIE CARNES, Circuit Judges, and MOORE, * District Judge.

         OPINION

         JULIE CARNES, Circuit Judge.

         Plaintiffs sued various local government defendants (“ Defendants” ), claiming unjust enrichment and seeking disgorgement of traffic fines Plaintiffs allege were imposed in violation of Florida law. Defendants moved to dismiss the claim, asserting sovereign immunity. The district court denied Defendants’ motion to dismiss, and Defendants now appeal. After a careful review of the record and controlling Circuit precedent, and with the benefit of oral argument, we dismiss this interlocutory appeal for lack of jurisdiction.

          BACKGROUND

         Plaintiffs filed this class action against red-light camera vendor American Traffic Solutions, Inc. (“ ATS” ), a company that contracts with Florida local governments to install and operate unmanned cameras designed to capture video images of traffic violations. Plaintiffs alleged in the complaint that they...

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