921 F.2d 1371 (8th Cir. 1990), 90-1167, Little Rock School Dist. v. Pulaski County Special School Dist. No. 1

Docket Nº:90-1167, 90-1579 and 90-1580.
Citation:921 F.2d 1371
Party Name:LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT; Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al., Intervenors Below, v. PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1; Dr. J.F. Cooley, Sherly Dunn, Shirley Lowery, Sara Brown, Doyan Matthews, Mildred Tatum; Mack McAlister, Appellants, North Little Rock School District, et al.
Case Date:December 12, 1990
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
 
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Page 1371

921 F.2d 1371 (8th Cir. 1990)

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT;

Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy

Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al., Intervenors Below,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1; Dr. J.F.

Cooley, Sherly Dunn, Shirley Lowery, Sara Brown,

Doyan Matthews, Mildred Tatum; Mack

McAlister, Appellants,

North Little Rock School District, et al.;

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT,

Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy

Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al., Intervenors Below,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1; Dr. J.F.

Cooley, Sherly Dunn, Shirley Lowery, Sara Brown,

Doyan Matthews, Mildred Tatum; Mack McAlister,

North Little Rock School District; Vicki Stephens; Ginny

Jones; Murry Witcher; Dixie Harrison; Larry

Lazenby; Rose Wilshire, Appellants,

Arkansas State Board of Education, et al., Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT,

Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy

Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al., Appellants,

Katherine Knight, Individually and as President of the

Little Rock Classroom Teachers Association (LRCTA), et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1; et al.,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellant,

Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy

Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1; et al.,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT,

Lorene Joshua, as next friend of minors Leslie Joshua, Stacy

Joshua, and Wayne Joshua, et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1, et al., Appellants,

Mac Faulkner, et al.,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellee,

Anne Mitchell, et al.,

Alexa Armstrong, Karlos Armstrong, Appellants,

Ed Bullington,

Khayyam Davis, Appellant,

Janice Dent, John Harrison, Alvin Hudson, Tatia Hudson, Appellants,

Milton Jackson,

Lorene Joshua, Leslie Joshua, Stacy Joshua, Wayne Joshua, Appellants,

Katherine Knight,

Sara Matthews, Appellants,

Becky McKinney,

Derrick Miles, Janice Miles, John M. Miles, NAACP, Appellants,

Joyce Person,

Brian Taylor, et al., Appellants,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DIST. # 1, North Little Rock

School District, Appellee,

Arkansas State Board of Education, Appellee,

Leon Barnes, Sheryl Dunn, Ruth White Tucker, Mac Faulkner,

Richard A. Giddings, Marianne Gosser, Mack McAlister,

Earle Love, Appellee,

Shirley Lowery, Bob Lyon, George A. McCrary, Dr. Harry P.

McDonald, Bob Moore, Steve Morley,

Robert L. Newton, Appellee,

Rae Perry, Mildred Tatum, Doyan Matthews,

Jeff Starling, L.D. Harris, Elaine Scott, Nancy Wood, State

of Arkansas, Appellees,

Bob Stender,

Walter Turnbow, Appellee,

Dale Ward, John Ward, Judy Wear, Grainger Williams, Dr. J.F. Cooley,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellee,

Anne Mitchell, et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT # 1, Appellant,

North Little Rock School District,

Arkansas State Board of Education, Appellee,

Leon Barnes,

Sheryl Dunn, Ruth White Tucker, Appellants,

Mac Faulkner, Richard A. Giddings, Marianne Gosser,

Mack McAlister, Appellant,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellee,

Anne Mitchell, et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT # 1, North Little

Rock School District, Appellants,

Arkansas State Board of Education, Appellee,

Leon Barnes, Appellant,

Sheryl Dunn, Ruth White Tucker, Mac Faulkner, Richard A. Giddings,

Marianne Gosser, Appellant,

Mack McAlister,

Earle Love, Appellee,

Shirley Lowery,

Bob Lyon, Appellant,

George A. McCrary, Dr. Harry P. McDonald, Bob Moore,

Steve Morley, Appellant,

Robert L. Newton, Appellee,

Rae Perry, Mildred Tatum, Doyan Matthews,

Jeff Starling, L.D. Harris, Elaine Scott, Nancy Wood, State

of Arkansas, Appellees,

Bob Stender,

Walter Turnbow, Appellee,

Dale Ward,

John Ward, Judy Wear, Appellants,

Grainger Williams, Dr. J.F. Cooley,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellee,

Anne Mitchell, et al.,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT # 1, North Little

Rock School District, Appellants,

Arkansas State Board of Education, Appellee,

Leon Barnes, Sheryl Dunn, Ruth White Tucker, Appellants,

Mac Faulkner, Richard A. Giddings,

Marianne Gosser, Mack McAlister, Appellants,

Earle Love, Appellee,

Shirley Lowery, Bob Lyon, Appellants,

George A. McCrary, Dr. Harry P. McDonald, Bob Moore,

Steve Morley, Appellant,

Robert L. Newton, Appellee,

Rae Perry,

Mildred Tatum, Doyan Matthews, Appellants,

Jeff Starling, L.D. Harris, Elaine Scott, Nancy Wood, State

of Arkansas, Appellees,

Bob Stender,

Walter Turnbow, Appellee,

Dale Ward,

John Ward, Judy Wear, Appellants,

Grainger Williams,

Dr. J.F. Cooley, Appellant,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

LITTLE ROCK SCHOOL DISTRICT, Appellee,

Anne Mitchell, Bob Moore, Pat Gee, Pat Rayburn, Mary J.

Gage, North Little Rock Classroom Teachers

Association, Pulaski Association of

Classroom Teachers, Little

Rock Classroom

Teachers Association,

Alexa Armstrong, Karlos Armstrong, Appellants,

Ed Bullington,

Khayyam Davis, Appellant,

Janice Dent, John Harrison,

Alvin Hudson, Tatia Hudson, Appellants,

Milton Jackson,

Lorene Joshua, Leslie Joshua, Stacy Joshua, Appellants,

Katherine Knight,

Sara Matthews, Appellant,

Becky McKinney,

Derrick Miles, Janice Miles, John M. Miles, NAACP, Appellants,

Joyce Person,

Brian Taylor, et al., Appellants,

v.

PULASKI COUNTY SPECIAL SCHOOL DISTRICT # 1, North Little

Rock School District,

Arkansas State Board of Education, Appellee,

Leon Barnes, Sheryl Dunn, Ruth White Tucker, Mac Faulkner,

Richard A. Giddings, Marianne Gosser, Mack McAlister,

Earle Love, Appellee,

Shirley Lowery, Bob Lyon, George A. McCrary, Dr. Harry P.

McDonald, Bob Moore, Steve Morley,

Robert L. Newton, Appellee,

Rae Perry, Mildred Tatum, Doyan Matthews,

Jeff Starling, L.D. Harris, Elaine Scott, Nancy Wood, State

of Arkansas, Appellees,

Bob Stender,

Walter Turnbow, Appellee,

Dale Ward, John Ward, Judy Wear, Grainger Williams, Dr. J.F. Cooley,

Nola Burl, Pat Rayburn, Morris Thompson, Theressa Wesley,

and John McNee (Burl Intervenors), Appellees.

Nos. 89-2288, 89-2289, 89-2352 to 89-2354, 90-1165 to

90-1167, 90-1579 and 90-1580.

United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit

December 12, 1990

Submitted June 21, 1990.

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Norman Chachkin, New York City, Christopher Heller, M. Samuel Jones, John W. Walker, Stephen W. Jones, Little Rock, Ark., for appellants.

John T. Lavey, H. William Allen, Little Rock, Ark., for appellees.

Before ARNOLD and WOLLMAN, Circuit Judges, and HEANEY, Senior Circuit Judge.

ARNOLD, Circuit Judge.

We have before us another chapter in the Little Rock school desegregation case, in the form of ten separate appeals from various orders of the District Court. The case has its roots in the 1950's, when the Supreme Court definitively announced that public opposition to desegregation of the races, no matter how deeply entrenched, could not be allowed to interfere with the full realization of the constitutional rights of black citizens. Cooper v. Aaron, 358 U.S. 1, 78 S.Ct. 1401, 3 L.Ed.2d 5 (1958).

The present phase of the case began in 1982, when the Little Rock School District (LRSD) brought suit against the two other school districts in Pulaski County, Arkansas, claiming that the Constitution compelled the consolidation of the three districts into one governmental unit. We rejected this claim in Little Rock School District v. Pulaski County Special School District, 778 F.2d 404 (8th Cir.1985) (en banc), cert. denied, 476 U.S. 1186, 106 S.Ct. 2926, 91 L.Ed.2d 554 (1986). We held, however, that interdistrict constitutional violations had occurred, and directed that certain remedial steps be taken. On remand, various remedial orders were entered, and various further appeals were taken to our Court, the nature of which we shall describe, to the extent necessary for an understanding of the issues now before us, in the course of this opinion.

Then, in 1988 and 1989, in a sharp departure from the adversary bitterness that had marked this controversy for over thirty years, the parties, including the Joshua intervenors, representing the injured class of black schoolchildren...

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