957 F.2d 268 (6th Cir. 1992), 90-1949, Baggs v. Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.
|Citation:||957 F.2d 268|
|Party Name:||Ralph BAGGS; Vern Baggs, Jr.; Gary A. Delecki; Lori J. Glick; Merrill J. Hansen; Tracy Helsel; Robert Kanaziz; Anthony F. Krol; Penny J. Pahl; Gary Parker; Gary Roessler; Mark Russell; David Wilson; Mary Ann Fender; Walter Montney; Patricia Russell; Daniel Schelske; Nadine Wells; James D. Wilson, II; James MacDonald, Plaintiffs-Appellants, Thomas A|
|Case Date:||February 27, 1992|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit|
Argued Jan. 21, 1992.
Craig W. Elhart (argued and briefed), Elhart & Power, Traverse City, Mich., for plaintiffs-appellants.
Jon G. March (argued and briefed), Jennifer DeLessio (briefed), Miller, Johnson, Snell & Cumminskey, Grand Rapids, Mich., for defendant-appellee.
Before GUY, NORRIS and BATCHELDER, Circuit Judges.
RALPH B. GUY, Jr., Circuit Judge.
The plaintiffs in this private-sector employee drug testing case appeal the district court's grant of summary judgment dismissing their breach of contract, defamation, and invasion of privacy claims against their former employer. We affirm.
Until August 1989, the plaintiffs worked for the defendant, Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., at Eagle-Picher's Trim Division plant in Kalkaska, Michigan. The Trim Division manufactures interior trim for use in automobiles. Some of the plant's 230 employees work with potentially hazardous materials, including hot adhesives.
Each applicant for employment at the plant was required to sign a form acknowledging that Eagle-Picher could terminate the employment at any time, with or without notice. 1 Upon hiring, each new worker received an employee handbook. The version of the handbook given to the plaintiffs had been prepared when the plant was known as Fabricon Automotive Division. The Fabricon handbook contained a pledge by Eagle-Picher to treat employees fairly, followed by a list of ten rules of employee conduct. The first rule prohibited intoxication while on duty and use or possession
of drugs on company premises. The handbook also spelled out a four-step system of progressive discipline but noted that severe infractions could result in immediate discharge.
In late 1988, Trim Division President Michael Aslanian became concerned about drug use among employees. According to Aslanian, several employees complained to him about drug use by fellow workers. Aslanian also stated that truck drivers making deliveries to the plant had commented to management about employee drug use. The plant's management responded in April 1989 by promulgating a drug-free workplace policy. That policy prohibited employees from possessing, using, or being under the influence of drugs while at work. The policy also provided for drug testing of employees under certain circumstances. The new policy was posted on employee bulletin boards.
Aslanian also communicated his concerns to the Kalkaska County Sheriff and the Grand Traverse Narcotics Team. With Aslanian's encouragement, an undercover agent worked in the plant to observe employees. As a result of the agent's surveillance, two employees were arrested in June 1989 for selling drugs. In order to dramatize the situation, Aslanian allowed the police to arrest the employees at work. According to Aslanian, the undercover agent told him that 60 percent of the workforce used illegal drugs.
The Trim Division strengthened its drug policy in July 1989. Among other changes, the new policy provided that "reporting to work with alcohol, illegal or illicit drugs in the employee's system is a violation of Company rules and will result in disciplinary action, up to and including discharge." This revision strengthened the earlier provision that only prohibited an employee from working under the influence of drugs. The new policy also provided that submission to a drug test at management's request was a "condition of employment." The previous policy had provided for drug testing only in certain circumstances. The new policy was posted on employee bulletin boards on July 17, 1989. On August 7, 1989, Eagle-Picher distributed a new employee handbook containing the revised drug policy.
Eagle-Picher carried out a surprise drug screening on August 10 and 11, 1989. At a meeting of employees, Aslanian announced that each employee would be required to submit a urine sample as a condition of continued employment. Nine employees, including seven of the plaintiffs, refused the test and left the plant. Eagle-Picher treated the refusals as voluntary resignations. One of the plaintiffs refused the test but declined to leave the plant. Eagle-Picher terminated his employment.
The remaining employees, over 200 in number, submitted to the urine test. The employees filled specimen jars in the employee lavatories. Male employees used a urinal in the presence of a male nurse. Female employees used a stall while a female nurse stood outside. Employees absent on August 10 were tested at a local health clinic.
Eagle-Picher received the test results six days later. Eagle-Picher immediately terminated the employees who tested positive for drugs, including twelve of the plaintiffs. On each terminated employee's record, Eagle-Picher listed violation of an unspecified company policy as the reason for termination.
One of the plaintiffs who tested positive denied drug use and contended that his positive result stemmed from passive inhalation of marijuana smoke. The other plaintiffs who tested positive have admitted that they have used illegal drugs. Eight of the ten plaintiffs who refused to submit to the test also have admitted illegal drug use. The other two plaintiffs who declined to be tested have denied any illegal drug use.
In response to requests from the media, Aslanian commented on the testing program. In published remarks, Aslanian stated that some employees had refused to take the tests and that others had tested positive. Aslanian...
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