968 F.2d 158 (2nd Cir. 1992), 1082, United States v. Jackson
|Docket Nº:||1082, Docket 91-1664.|
|Citation:||968 F.2d 158|
|Party Name:||UNITED STATES of America, Appellant, v. Frank JACKSON, Defendant-Appellee.|
|Case Date:||June 15, 1992|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit|
Argued March 16, 1992.
Thomas McC. Souther, Asst. U.S. Atty., S.D.N.Y., New York City (Otto G. Obermaier, U.S. Atty., S.D.N.Y., Annmarie Levins, Asst. U.S. Atty., S.D.N.Y., New York City, of counsel), for appellant.
David B. Levitt, The Legal Aid Society, Federal Defender Services Appeals Unit, New York City, for defendant-appellee.
Before: MESKILL and PRATT, Circuit Judges, and NICKERSON, [*] District Judge.
MESKILL, Circuit Judge:
The government appeals from a decision entered in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Lasker, J., declaring the enhanced penalty provisions of 21 U.S.C. § 841(b) and United States Sentencing Guidelines (Guidelines) § 2D1.1 void for vagueness because the provisions do not define the term "cocaine base." United States v. Jackson, 768 F.Supp. 97 (S.D.N.Y.1991). Those provisions impose substantially greater sentences for offenses involving cocaine base
than for offenses involving the same amount of cocaine. 21 U.S.C. § 841(b); Guidelines § 2D1.1.
Defendant-appellee Frank Jackson was convicted, upon a plea of guilty, of "possession with intent to distribute cocaine ('crack')" in violation of 21 U.S.C. §§ 812, 841(a)(1), 841(b)(1)(A) and 18 U.S.C. § 2. Because the district court determined that the enhanced penalty provisions were unconstitutionally vague, it sentenced Jackson to the lesser punishment that would have been proper if the substance involved in the offense had been cocaine.
In May 1989 police officers stopped a car in which Jackson and co-defendant Frank Culmer were passengers. The police found a brown paper bag containing 300 grams of a substance the government identified as cocaine base or "crack" and 125 grams of a substance the government identified as cocaine. Jackson was charged with one count of unlawfully, intentionally and knowingly possessing with intent to distribute approximately 300 grams of mixtures and substances that contain a detectable amount of cocaine base in violation of 21 U.S.C. §§ 812, 841(a)(1), (b)(1)(A) and 18 U.S.C. § 2, and one count of unlawfully, intentionally and knowingly possessing with intent to distribute approximately 125 grams of mixtures and substances that contain a detectable amount of cocaine in violation of 21 U.S.C. §§ 841(a)(1), (b)(1)(C) and 18 U.S.C. § 2. Jackson entered a plea of guilty on the first count of possession with intent to distribute cocaine base. The second count was dismissed.
At his plea allocution Jackson explained that Culmer had told him that Culmer could get some "crack" and promised that if Jackson accompanied him, Culmer would give Jackson a share of the proceeds from a drug sale. Judge Lasker specifically asked Jackson if Jackson knew that the substance in Culmer's possession was "crack." Jackson responded "yes."
Despite this plea, Jackson later professed not to know what type of drugs Culmer intended to purchase. In a letter to Judge Lasker in connection with his sentencing Jackson wrote that Culmer "never even told me what kind of drugs or how much he was going to get but I also figured it would be some types [sic] of cocaine."
After Jackson pleaded guilty, a report of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Laboratory, dated June 2, 1989, identified the alleged "crack" cocaine as cocaine base with a purity of 27 percent. On November 8, 1990, in response to the substance's low purity level, Jackson moved for either an order directing the government to produce samples of the substance alleged to be cocaine base or an order directing retesting by the government chemist and a precise description of the procedures used by the chemist. In an affidavit in support of the motion, defense expert Dr. Morris S. Zedeck explained why a retesting was necessary and described the test to be used. Judge Lasker responded to the motion by permitting Dr. Zedeck and another doctor to retest the alleged cocaine base.
After performing two tests on the sample Dr. Zedeck concluded that the substance was cocaine base. Because the substance was highly impure, however, he questioned whether the substance could have been used as "crack." Specifically Dr. Zedeck's conclusion was as follows:
Based on the GC/MS scans, the ion ratios, the solvents used to extract the pellets and the volumes of solvent employed, the data indicate that the material was cocaine base. There are several indications that this sample of "crack" is highly impure. First, the DEA calculated that the sample contained 27% cocaine. In our limited study to determine form of cocaine and not quantitation, using only a two point standard curve, our data are similar with those of the DEA; we found the sample to contain 22.7% cocaine. The form of the material being soft, sticky, oily and brownish indicates the presence of impurities. Pure cocaine would not have left an oily residue after ether extraction. Crack is supposed to be a whitish, dried, hard pellet. It is
difficult to predict whether this material could have been used as crack.
At sentencing Jackson contended that the provisions that punish cocaine base offenses more severely than offenses involving cocaine are unconstitutional because they are impermissibly vague with regard to what constitutes cocaine base.
The district court agreed with Jackson and held that the failure of the statute and Guidelines to define "cocaine base" rendered...
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