98 F.Supp. 797 (D.Kan. 1951), Civ. T-316, Brown v. Board of Ed. of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kan.

Docket Nº:Civ. T-316
Citation:98 F.Supp. 797
Party Name:Brown v. Board of Ed. of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kan.
Case Date:August 03, 1951
Court:United States District Courts, 10th Circuit, District of Kansas

Page 797

98 F.Supp. 797 (D.Kan. 1951)

BROWN et al. v BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA, SHAWNEE COUNTY, KANSAS et al.

Civ. No. T-316.

United States District Court, D. Kansas.

Aug. 3, 1951

John Scott and Charles Scott, Topeka, Kan., Robert L. Carter, New York City, Jack Greenbert, New York City, and Charles Bledsoe, Topeka, Kan., for plaintiffs.

George Brewster and Lester Goodell, Topeka, Kan., for defendants

Before HUXMAN, Circuit Judge, MELLOTT, Chief Judge, and HILL, District judge.

HUXMAN, Circuit Judge.

Chapter 72-1724 of the General Statutes of Kansas, 1949, relating to public schools in cities of the first class, so far as material, authorizes such cities to organize and maintain separate schools for the education of white and colored children in the grades below the high school grades. Pursuant to this authority, the City of Topeka, Kansas, a city of the first class, has established and maintains a segregated system of schools for the first six grades. It has established and maintains in the Topeka School District eighteen schools for white students and four schools for colored students.

The adult plaintiffs instituted this action for themselves, their minor children plaintiffs, and all other persons similarly situated for an interlocutory injunction, a permanent injunction, restraining the enforcement, operation and execution of the state statute and the segregation instituted thereunder by the school authorities of the City of Topeka and for a declaratory judgment declaring unconstitutional the state statute and the segregation set up thereunder by the school authorities of the City of Topeka.

As against the school district of Topeka they contend that the opportunities provided for the infant plaintiffs in the separate all Negro schools are inferior to those provided white children in the all white schools; that the respects in which these opportunities are inferior include the physical facilities, curricula, teaching resources, student personnel services as well as all other services.

Page 798

As against both the state and the school district, they contend that apart from all other factors segregation in itself constitutes an inferiority in educational opportunities offered to Negroes and that all of this is in violation of due process guaranteed them by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In their answer both the state and the school district defends the segregation in its schools instituted thereunder.

We have found as a fact that the physical facilities, the curricula, courses of study, qualification of and quality of teachers, as well as other educational facilities in the two sets of schools are comparable. It is obvious that absolute equality of physical facilities is impossible of attainment in buildings that are erected at different times. So also absolute equality of subjects taught is impossible of maintenance where teachers are permitted to select books of their own choosing to use in teaching in addition to the prescribed courses of study. It is without dispute that the prescribed courses of study are identical in all of the Topeka schools and that there is no discrimination in this respect. It is also clear in the record that the educational qualifications of the teachers in the colored schools are equal to those in the white schools and that in all other respects the educational facilities and services are comparable. It is obvious from the fact that there are only four colored schools as against eighteen white schools in the Topeka School District, that colored children in many instances are required to travel much greater distances than they would be required to travel could they attend a white school, and are required to travel much greater distances than white children are required to travel. The evidence, however, establishes that the school district transports colored children to and from school free of charge. No such service is furnished to white children. We conclude that in the maintenance and operation of the schools there is no willful, intentional or substantial discrimination in the matters referred to above between the colored and white schools. In fact, while plaintiffs' attorneys have not abandoned this contention, they did not give it great emphasis in their presentation before the court. They relied primarily upon the contention that segregation in and of itself without more violates their rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.

This contention poses a question not free from difficulty. As a subordinate court in the federal judicial system, we seek the answer to this constitutional question in the decision of the Supreme Court when it has...

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20 practice notes
  • 91 A.2d 137 (Del.Ch. 1952), 15, Gebhart v. Belton
    • United States
    • Delaware Supreme Court of Delaware
    • August 28, 1952
    ...14; Boyer v. Garrett, (4 Cir.), 183 F.2d 582; Briggs v. Elliott, (D.C.), 98 F.Supp. 529; Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, (D.C.), 98 F.Supp. 797; and Davis v. County School Board, (D.C.), 103 F.Supp. 337. A recent holding of the Supreme Court of Missouri is to the same effect. State e......
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    • United States
    • West's Encyclopedia of American Law Milestones in the Law
    • January 1, 2005
    ...Conclusion OPINION BELOW The opinion of the statutory three-judge-District Court for the District of Kansas (R. 238-244) is reported at 98 F. Supp. 797. JURISDICTION The judgment of the court below was entered on August 3, 1951 (R. 247). On October 1, 1951, appellants filed a petition for a......
  • Brown footnote eleven in historical context: social science and the supreme court's quest for legitimacy.
    • United States
    • Stanford Law Review Vol. 54 Nbr. 4, April 2002
    • April 1, 2002
    ...(28.) Brown, 347 U.S. at 493. (29.) Id. at 494. (30.) Id. at 494 (citing findings of the lower court in Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 98 F. Supp. 797 (D. Kan. 1951)) (alterations in original). (31.) Id. (emphasis added). (32.) Paul L. Rosen, History and State of the Art of Applied Social Research ......
  • 87 A.2d 862 (Del.Ch. 1952), 258,265, Belton v. Gebhart
    • United States
    • Delaware Court of Chancery of Delaware
    • April 1, 1952
    ...and while not at all conclusive, their findings gave some support to the conclusions reached. [2] See Brown v. Board of Education, D.C., 98 F.Supp. 797, appeal pending. Dameron v. Bayless, 14 Ariz. 180, 126 P. 273; People v. Gallagher, 93 N.Y. 438. Defendants also cite Gong Lum v. Rice, 275......
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13 cases
  • 91 A.2d 137 (Del.Ch. 1952), 15, Gebhart v. Belton
    • United States
    • Delaware Supreme Court of Delaware
    • August 28, 1952
    ...14; Boyer v. Garrett, (4 Cir.), 183 F.2d 582; Briggs v. Elliott, (D.C.), 98 F.Supp. 529; Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, (D.C.), 98 F.Supp. 797; and Davis v. County School Board, (D.C.), 103 F.Supp. 337. A recent holding of the Supreme Court of Missouri is to the same effect. State e......
  • 87 A.2d 862 (Del.Ch. 1952), 258,265, Belton v. Gebhart
    • United States
    • Delaware Court of Chancery of Delaware
    • April 1, 1952
    ...and while not at all conclusive, their findings gave some support to the conclusions reached. [2] See Brown v. Board of Education, D.C., 98 F.Supp. 797, appeal pending. Dameron v. Bayless, 14 Ariz. 180, 126 P. 273; People v. Gallagher, 93 N.Y. 438. Defendants also cite Gong Lum v. Rice, 275......
  • 344 U.S. 1 (1952), 8, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Supreme Court
    • October 8, 1952
    ...in the other three cases. P. 3. Page 2 The following are citations to the reports of the decisions below: No. 8, the Kansas case, 98 F.Supp. 797; No. 101, the South Carolina case, 103 F.Supp. 920; No.191, the Virginia case, 103 F.Supp. 337. Per curiam opinion. PER CURIAM. In two appeals now......
  • 347 U.S. 483 (1954), 1, 2, 4, 10., Brown v. Board of Ed. of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kan.
    • United States
    • Federal Cases United States Supreme Court
    • May 17, 1954
    ...a nonsegregated basis. On direct appeals by plaintiffs from adverse decisions in the United States District Courts, District of Kansas, 98 F.Supp. 797, Eastern District of South Carolina, 103 F.Supp. 920, and Eastern District of Virginia, 103 F.Supp. 337, and on grant of certiorari after de......
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6 books & journal articles
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    • United States
    • West's Encyclopedia of American Law Milestones in the Law
    • January 1, 2005
    ...Conclusion OPINION BELOW The opinion of the statutory three-judge-District Court for the District of Kansas (R. 238-244) is reported at 98 F. Supp. 797. JURISDICTION The judgment of the court below was entered on August 3, 1951 (R. 247). On October 1, 1951, appellants filed a petition for a......
  • Brown footnote eleven in historical context: social science and the supreme court's quest for legitimacy.
    • United States
    • Stanford Law Review Vol. 54 Nbr. 4, April 2002
    • April 1, 2002
    ...(28.) Brown, 347 U.S. at 493. (29.) Id. at 494. (30.) Id. at 494 (citing findings of the lower court in Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 98 F. Supp. 797 (D. Kan. 1951)) (alterations in original). (31.) Id. (emphasis added). (32.) Paul L. Rosen, History and State of the Art of Applied Social Research ......
  • State Courts and Constitutional Structure; 51 Imperfect Solutions: States and the Making of American Constitutional Law.
    • United States
    • Yale Law Journal Vol. 128 Nbr. 5, March 2019
    • March 1, 2019
    ...103 F. Supp. 920, 922 (E.D.S.C. 1952). (323.) Briggs, 98 F. Supp. at 547-48 (Waring, J., dissenting). (324.) Brown v. Bd. of Educ, 98 F. Supp. 797, 798 (D. Kan. 1951) (three-judge (325.) Id. at 800. (326.) See id. (327.) The passage is not included in the Federal Supplement reporter, but it......
  • Silencing Chicken Little: Options for School Districts After Parents Involved
    • United States
    • Louisiana Law Review Nbr. 69-1, October 2008
    • October 1, 2008
    ...would receive in a racially integrated system." Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 347 U.S. 483, 494 (1954) (quoting Brown v. Bd. of Educ., 98 F. Supp. 797 (D. Kan. 1951)). [134] See Parents Involved, 127 S. Ct. at 2776-77 (Thomas, J., concurring); Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306, 347-48 (2003)......
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