In re WL Homes, 080813 FED3, 12-3414
|Docket Nº:||12-3414, 12-3493|
|Opinion Judge:||CHAGARES, Circuit Judge.|
|Party Name:||In re: WL HOMES, Debtor v. WL HOMES LLC; JLH INSURANCE CORPORATION; GEORGE L. MILLER George L. Miller; JLH Insurance Corporation, Appellants WACHOVIA BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION In re: WL HOMES, LLC, Debtor WACHOVIA BANK NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, Appellant v. WL HOMES LLC; JLH INSURANCE CORPORATION; GEORGE L. MILLER|
|Attorney:||Steven M. Coren, Esq. (ARGUED) Brian L. Watson, Esq. Kaufman, Coren & Ress, P.C. Two Commerce Square, Counsel for Appellants/Cross-Appellees. Francis A. Monaco, Jr., Esq. Thomas M. Horan, Esq. Womble Carlyle Sandridge & Rice, LLP James D. Whooley, Esq. (ARGUED) Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, LL...|
|Judge Panel:||Before: FUENTES, FISHER, and CHAGARES, Circuit Judges.|
|Case Date:||August 08, 2013|
|Court:||United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit|
Argued June 26, 2013
On Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (Nos. 1:11-cv-00619, 1:11-cv-00621, 1:11-cv-00692) District Judge: Hon. Richard G. Andrews
In 2007, appellee/cross-appellant Wachovia Bank, National Association 1("Wachovia") extended a loan to WL Homes, LLC ("WL Homes"). In exchange, WL Homes granted Wachovia a security interest in the $10 million bank account of a wholly-owned subsidiary called JLH Insurance Corporation ("JLH"). WL Homes eventually filed a bankruptcy petition and Wachovia sought a declaration in United States Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware that it had an enforceable security interest in the JLH bank account. The Bankruptcy Court granted Wachovia's motion for summary judgment, holding that Wachovia had a valid security interest in the account because JLH had consented to the pledge and, in the alternative, because WL Homes had use and control of the JLH account. The Chapter 7 trustee appointed to represent both WL Homes and JLH appealed. The District Court affirmed the grant of summary judgment on the basis of consent but reversed the use and control holding. Both parties appeal the decision of the District Court. For the reasons that follow, we will affirm.
In October 2007, WL Homes and Wachovia entered into a "Line of Credit Loan Agreement" ("Loan Agreement" or "Agreement"). In the Agreement, Wachovia agreed to extend a $20 million revolving line of credit to WL Homes. To secure the loan, WL Homes, the borrower, pledged its interest in the JLH bank account as collateral to Wachovia, the lender, through the following clause in the Agreement:
Borrower shall maintain its JLH Insurance Co. primary deposit account ("the JLH Account") with Lender. The funds on deposit in the JLH Account shall at no time be less than $10, 000, 000. Borrower shall also maintain its Laing Luxury primary deposit accounts . . . with Lender. The JLH Account and the Laing Luxury Accounts are collectively referred to as the Deposit Accounts. Borrower grants to Lender a security interest in the Deposit Accounts. [In the event of default], Lender shall not be obligated to release to Borrower any funds from the Deposit Accounts . . . .
Appendix ("App.") B172 (emphasis added). WL Homes and Wachovia extended the loan with two letter agreements signed in June and July 2008. Those agreements reaffirmed the obligations set forth in the initial Loan Agreement.
The disputed account was held in the name of JLH. WL Homes formed JLH in 2005 as a wholly-owned, pure captive insurance company that could pay claims brought against WL Homes.2 A pure captive insurance company insures the risks of its affiliates — here, the risks of WL Homes, its sole parent.3 The disputed depository account at Wachovia Bank was opened in January 2008, shortly after execution of the Loan Agreement. According to WL Homes, JLH opened the account to fulfill Arizona's requirement that JLH, as a captive insurer, maintain a minimum level of capital in reserve to pay claims.
JLH was a wholly-owned subsidiary of WL Homes. All funds held in JLH's name were transferred from its parent company. Although JLH has its own formation documents and maintained its own books and records, WL Homes's financial statements reported JLH's assets as its own. Three of JLH's corporate officers also served on the board of WL Homes. The other two JLH board members were...
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