Adbul-Mumit v. Alexandria Hyundai, LLC, 071318 FED4, 17-1582

Docket Nº:17-1582, 17-1587, 17-1611
Opinion Judge:THACKER, Circuit Judge
Party Name:JIHAD ADBUL-MUMIT; MATTHEW ABEDI; MONICA ADAIR SARGENT; MARK AGEE; ALIZ AGOSTON; YVONNE ALSTON; DAN AMATRUDA; KRISTY AMBROSE; KIMBERLEY AMICK; WANDA G. AMOS; CHRISTOPHER ARAUZA; CARL ARSENAULT; BROOKE ASHER; MICHELLE ATKINS; RAYMOND O. ATKINS; MATTHEW ATWELL; DAVID AUB; SOHA AYYASH; ASIF AZIZ; SUSAN BAILEY; KAREN BAKER; HAB BAKER, III; TERRY BA...
Attorney:James B. Feinman, JAMES B. FEINMAN & ASSOCIATES, Lynchburg, Virginia, for Appellants. Shon Morgan, QUINN EMANUEL URQUHART & SULLIVAN LLP, Los Angeles, California, for Appellees. Jakarra J. Jones, Richmond, Virginia, James F. Neale, MCGUIREWOODS LLP, Charlottesville, Virginia; David Cooper, QUINN ...
Judge Panel:Before THACKER and HARRIS, Circuit Judges, and SHEDD, Senior Circuit Judge.
Case Date:July 13, 2018
Court:United States Courts of Appeals, Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit
 
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JIHAD ADBUL-MUMIT; MATTHEW ABEDI; MONICA ADAIR SARGENT; MARK AGEE; ALIZ AGOSTON; YVONNE ALSTON; DAN AMATRUDA; KRISTY AMBROSE; KIMBERLEY AMICK; WANDA G. AMOS; CHRISTOPHER ARAUZA; CARL ARSENAULT; BROOKE ASHER; MICHELLE ATKINS; RAYMOND O. ATKINS; MATTHEW ATWELL; DAVID AUB; SOHA AYYASH; ASIF AZIZ; SUSAN BAILEY; KAREN BAKER; HAB BAKER, III; TERRY BARNES; JOSEPH BARTELL; HARRY L. BARTON; BENJAMIN BASHAM; MATTHEW BASILONE; JOHN BAXTER; JOHN BEASLEY; TIMM BETCHER; ELIZABETH BELEVAN; BARBARA BELL; JUDY BENDER; AMINE BERBALE; JAMES BERLING; SHARON BISDEE; WILLIAM BONNER; WALTER BORDEAUX; GARY BOYETTE; TODD BRADBURY; KAREN BRADBURY; JOHN BRANCATO; WILLIAM BREWSTER; LORI BRODIE; GLORIA BROOKS; ELSE BROWN; MELANIE BROWN; ANGELA BROWN; GARY BROWN; JEANNE BROWN; SYDNEY BRUMBELOW; JAN BURFORD; SARA BURRUSS; JAMIE BURTON; JOSEPH CALDARELLI; JASON CALL; TODD CARLSON; HOWARD L. CARPENTER; CYNTHIA CARTER; FREDERICK CARTER; JACKLYN CASSELLE-TUPPONCE; JARED CASTRO; REBECCA CATLETT; SUSAN CAVE; KIRT CHAPPELLE; LINDA CHEESEBORO; ROGER CHESLEY, JR.; STEVE CHILDRESS; DAN CHO; SUNG CHO; SUNG CHUN; WILLIAM CLARK; LINDA CLUNE; STUART COCHRAN; CHARLES COCHRANE; ANGEL COLLINS; HENRY SHANE COLVIN; KARRI COLVIN; CARLY CONNELLY; ANGIE CONNER; JEREMY CONRAD; PHILIP CORRAO; KIMBERLY CRAWFORD; MARGARET CRITTENDON; APRIL CROCKER; WILLIAM CROMER; JAY CUNNINGHAM; MARY CURTIS; ROBERT DANIELS; DONNA DAVIS; BOYD DAVIS; LISA DAVIS; ROGER DAVIS; MICHELLE DEBROSSE; MICHAEL DECANIO; ALMA DELIA DELEON; JENNIFER DEMARCO; ANTHONY DEPAUL, JR.; GEORGE D. DESPERT, III; CYNTHIA DEVANE; RUTH DIAZ; RON DICKMAN; SHERI DIXSON; SONYA DODSON; JESENIA DOMINGUEZ; TERRY DONALDSON; LATAVIA DREW; ARLENE DREWRY; CHRISTINA DRUGATZ; KAREN DUNCAN; SANDRA K. DUNTON; JEFF EDDY; DEBORAH EDGE; DEBORAH EDGEFIELD; PAMELA EDWARDS; KASEY EIKE; MIRIAH EISENMAN; FREDERICK EITEL; SHARON EKSTRAND; NICOLE ELSESSER; JOSEPH ELTON; KAREN EVANS; MASE FABAR; FLOYD FALLIN, JR.; JAMES BASHAM; ELIZABETH FARRELL; MARGIE D. FAULS; CAITLIN FEELEY; BARRY FELDMAN; BRIAN FELDMAN; WANDA FERGUSON; JAMES FICKLE; SHIRLEY FICKLE; SCOTT FLORA; THOMAS ROBERT FRANCO; JOHN FRANKLIN; TAMMY FRANKLIN; ANTHONY FREDERICK; TRACY FREDERICK; THOMAS FREEZE; ADAM FURMAN; ALICIA FUSCO; DONNA GADDIS; GUILLERMO GALARZA; IVAN GALLOWAY, JR.; IDA GARNER; WILLIS M. GARY; KURT GERGLE; TARUN GHAI; ELAINE GIBSON; HELEN GILLESPIE; MELODY GILLEY; TANJA GILMORE; BRIAN GLAUB; BARRY GOLDBERG; SCOTT GOODMAN; RICHARD GOULD; TROY L. GRAHAM; GABRIELA GRAJEDA; ELIZABETH GRANT; BRANDI GRAY; CHRISTIE GRAY; JANIE GRAY; VALERIE GRAY; GRAYBERG; AYNDRIA GREEN; DIANA GRIFFIN; PAUL L. GROVER; JESSICA GROVES; DEDRA GUENO; CARL GUSSGARD; ARNOLD GUTMAN; JULIAN GUTTERMAN; TESSIE GUTTERMAN; LISA HAGERTY; LAUREN HAGY; CEDON J. HALEY, JR.; DOROTHY HALPIN; NANCY N. HAMLETT; ERESTINE HARDING; DEBORAH HARE; AQUISI HARRIS; KENDALL HARRIS; MARY HARRIS; PATRICE A. HARRIS; BRIANNA HARRISON; SHARON HARRISON; SHARON HART; LEE ANN HARTMANN; PATRICIA HAUSER; DEANNA HAVERLY; LESLIE HEARN; KATHLEEN HEDRICK; AMANDA HEINLEIN; CHARLES HELMS; ROBERT HENDRICKSON; STEPHEN HERMAN; JAMES HERRINGTON; WILLIAM HESTER, JR.; DEBBIE HETTERLY; NANCY HICKMAN; JEREMY HILLBERRY; GREG E. HINES; ROBERT HITE; BRITTANY HOBAN; PAM HODGES; THURMAN HODGES; CHRISTOPHER HOEHN; CAROLYN HORCHNER; JEFFREY HORCHNER; BETTY HORNICK; JENNIFER HORNING; MAJOR M. HORTON; BITSY HOUSE; ALYSSA HRONOWSKI; TEDDY HUDDLESTON; JERRY HUDSON, SR.; HUBERT HUGHES; SHAY HUNTER; MARK HUSTEAD; CAROL HUTCHINSON; NATHEN ILLIDGE; GEORGE IOANNOU; FRANCES JACOCKS; PATRICIA JACOCKS; JASON JAFFEUX; SALLY JAMES; STACEY JANSEN; JOYCE JANTO; WALTER JEFFRIES; JANICE JENKINS; CHELSEA JOHNSON; MONICA JOHNSON; RASHEEDAH JOHNSON; TODD JOHNSON; DERWOOD JOHNSTON; JOHN JOHNSTONE; CHRISTINA JONES; PAMELA JONES; WILBER B. JONES; RICHARD JORDAN; SANDRA JORDAN; SHERYL JORDAN; JENNIFER JUSTICE; KIM KEATING; CODY KELLY; TERESA KELLY; MELANIE KENYON; JOHN KERR; SHEA KERSEY; HANNAH KIGHT; WILLIAM KIGHT; MIKYUNG KIM; CAROLYN KINES; LARRY KING; SUSAN KING; VERNON KIRBY; DIANA KITE; EDWARD KIZER; PATSY KIZER; JOHN A. KNIGHT; CONNIE KNISELEY; DONNA KNOELL; AMANDA KOZAK; TAMARA KROBERT; FRANK KULOVITZ; CARL KURI; KELLY KUSEK; VICTOR C. KVIETKUS; BRENDA LACKEY; TAMMY LACKEY; MARY LANG; MARKUS LANGE; CATHERINE LANTZ; GLENN LAVINDER; CHRISTOPHER LEGENDRE; BARBARA LEGGETT; DAVID LEHMAN; CALVIN LEWIS; CALVIN LEWIS; REGINA LEWIS; DELORES LINDBLOM; WILLIAM LIPFORD; ASHLEY LIPPOLIS-AVILES; MIKE LITTMAN; BILLY LLEWELLYN; ROBIN LOVETT; DAVID LOVING; CYANE LOWDEN; KEN LU; JOSHUA LUBECK; ROBERT R. LUCAS; PATRICIA LYONS; WILLIAM LYONS; CHRISTINE MACCASLIN; ANITA MADISON; JOHN MALIZIA; SUZANNE MALIZIA; THOMAS MALONE; STANLEY MARCUS; HEATHER MATSEY; JAMES MATSEY; RODNEY MATTHEWS; SHAWNA MATTOCKS; MATTHEW MATTRO; JEFF MAY; HAROLD MAYHEW, JR.; SHAWN MAYNOR; DIANDRA MAYO; ROBERT MCCARRAHER; PENNY MCCENEY; ROBERT MCCLELLAND; MICHAEL MCCLENNING; ROBERT MCCURDY; JOSEPH MCDANIEL; SUSAN MCFADDEN; WILLIAM MCFADDEN; MARK MCGINLEY; RICHARD MCGRUDER; VICTORIA MCGRUDER; DONALD MCINTIRE; KAREN MELLER; KAREN MELLER; CARMEN MERCADO; SCOTT MEYERS; CAROL MIEGGS; CHRISTY MILLER; DAVID MILLER; RON MILLER; MARIA MING LI; MARY MITCHELL; TERRIE MITCHELL; BANKS MITCHUM; BENJAMIN MOHER; DAVID MOLINARI; JUNG MOON; KAREN MOONEY; BONNIE MOORE; MONTE MORGAN; PHILLIP MORGAN; WILLIAM MORGAN; BRYON MOSS; SUZANNE MOWBRAY; DAVID MULLIGAN; MARY MULLIGAN; NANCY MURRAY; ROGER MYERS; PATRICK NANCE; DENNIS NEGRAN; PENNIE NEWELL; GLEN NEWITT; JACQUI NEWITT; EDWARD NEWMAN, JR.; KEVIN NEWSOME; REVEREDY NICHOLSON; PATRICIA NICOSIA; RANDALL NIXON; KAREN NOLAN; RYAN NOLETTE; BRYAN NORDQUIST; SERGEI NOVITSKY; JONATHAN O'BRIEN; WILLIAM O'FLYNN; KAREN O'NEIL; ADRIAN ODYA-WEIS; DENNIS OLEARY; JOHN OLSEN; TANA RAE OROPEZA; BRIAN OSBORNE; CANDACE OWENS; LYNN PAGE; TANYA PALIK; RONA PALMER; ASHLEY PANNELL; HARRY PAULETTE; TANYA PEAKE; DONNA PEARSON; RICHARD PEARSON; JOHN PEDERSEN; CHRIS PENA; ROY MASON PENNINGTON, III; NICHOLAS PEREZ; GREG PERIGARD; KIM PERKINS; MARK PERRY; BRADY PETERS; KAREN PETERS; THOMAS PETIT; REBECCA PETRELLA; SUSAN PETRIE; ADRIAN PHILLIPS, JR.; ANNE PICCIANO; JOHN PICCIANO; CARL PIERCE; SIVATHANU PILLAI; DEBRA PINES; CHARLES PINKARD; LILIA PINSON; ARLOVE PLUNKETT; TIMOTHY POHLIG; DENISE POINDEXTER; RACHEL POLIQUIN; MARGARET POMEROY; DAVID POORE, III; LAURA POTTER; KATHY POWERS; LINDA PRATT; BERNARD PRESGRAVES; JASON PRICE; DENISE PRYOR; JOSHUA PUCCI; VICTORIA PUCKETT; SARA PULLEN; TONY PULLEY; CYNTHIA QUATTLEBAUM; EVA RALSTON; WILLIAM RALSTON; HANNAH RAMEY; JACQUELINE RANDOLPH; THOMAS RANDOLPH; MICHAEL RANGER; BRAD RANSOM; HENRY REQUEJO; DAVID REYNOLDS; ROSE RICKER; DANNY RIDDLE; ROBIN ROBERT; JOSHUA ROBERTS; MARY ROBERTS; ANNIE ROBINSON; ANTONIO ROBINSON; ROCKY ROCKBURN; DREW ROPER; TROY ROSIER; ERIC ROTHMAN; BRIAN ROWE; JULIET ROWLAND; JOHN ROWLEY; NANCY ROWSEY; STEPHEN RUBIS; KYLE RUSSELL; JENNIFER RYAN; THOMAS RYDER; JOSEPH SALAZAR; RANDALL SAMPLES; REBECCA SAMUELSON; THOMAS SANCHEZ; AARON SANDERS; ASOK KUMAR SARKAR; TOM SCARCELLA; EDWARD SCEARCE; SHANE SCHLESMAN; WADE SCHWANKE, JR.; GWEN SEAL; AMY SEAY; BRADLEY SEAY; CHARLES SELTMAN; PATTY SENTER; LYNN SETTLE; TIM SEYMOUR; RONALD SHARP; ERNEST SHARPE; SHIRLEY SHAW; STEPHANIE SHELOR; MICHELLE SHIFFLETT; SANDRA SHIFFLETT; JUNE SHORES; D. SHAWN SHUMAKE; NINA SIBERT; ROBERT SILBER; CHRISTIAN SIMMERS; MARY SINGHAS; RANDALL SINGHAS; AMY SMITH; DAPHNE HOPE SMITH; LISA SMITH; STEPHEN SMITH; SUZANNE SMITH; KRISTINE SMOLENS; HOWARD SNYDER; WESLEY SONGER; EMILY SPARKS; BRIAN SPENCER; SVETLANA SPENCER; PATRICIA SPIER; LORI SPIK; DEREK ST. ONGE; RONALD STAFFORD; JONATHAN STARKS; MARK STEPHENS; TERRY STEPP; SARAH STEVENSON; ERIC STEWART; ROXANNE STITH; TIM STOESSEL; JEAN STOTLER; SARA STRAMEL; LARRY STRAYHORN; FRANKLIN STURKEY; BEN SULLENGER; YOLANDA SULLIVAN; JOHN SUTOR; WANDA SUTPHIN; SHARON SWINBURNE; STELLA TANG; ANDREW TAYLOR; ANN TAYLOR; DONNA TAYLOR; JI JI THEKKEVEEDU; CHRISTOPHER THOME; MICHAEL THOME; DAVID THOMPSON; TOM THOMPSON; ASHLI THURSTON; CHRISTOPHER TOKAR; DION TOMER; CLIFFORD TRIMBLE; SERGIO TROMBA; ADELINE TROTTER; JAMES TURNER; JEFFREY TURNER; OWENS TURNER, JR.; MARILYN TWINE; LONNIE URQUHART; CHERI VALVERDE; MIKE VAMMINO; CARRIE VAN HOOK; KATHERINE VANDENBRIEJE; MILCA VARGAS; MARY VAUGHAN; ROBENA VAUGHAN; JESSYCA VENICE; KIMBERLY VEST; CAROL VIERGUTZ; MARYANN VILLIES; PATRICE VOSSLER; AMADA WAGONER; STACY WALLER; GARY WALTON; GRETCHEN WARD; SHELIA WARD; DANIEL WAXMAN; CHRISTOPHER WEAVER; MARGARET WEBB; LAURA WEISIGER; STEPHANY WHIPPLE; DAVID WHITLEY; SARAH WHITLOCK; DIANE WIEN; ROBERT T. WIENER; CHRISTOPHER WILCHER; MINDY WILLIAMS; VINCENT WILLIAMS; HANNAH WILSON; JUANITA WILSON; RIED WILSON; CHARLES WISER; SHARON WISER; MARK WOEHLER; KENNETH WOMACK; EMILY WONG; GREGORY WOODS; KATHERYN WOOSLEY; CAROL WRIGHT; JONATHAN WRIGHT; MARY WRIGHT; THOMAS WRIGHT; TIMOTHY WRIGHT, JR.; LESLIE YAMNICKY; KENNETH YATES; JAMIE YOUNG; SANDRA YOUNG; ROBERT YOUNIE, II; ATEF ZAYD, Plaintiffs - Appellants,

v.

ALEXANDRIA HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S LEESBURG HYUNDAI, LLC; BROWN'S MANASSAS HYUNDAI, LLC; CHECKERED FLAG IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; CHECKERED FLAG STORE #6, LLC; CRAFT AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; DUNCAN IMPORTS, INCORPORATED; FAIRFAX HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; FIRST TEAM, INCORPORATED; GATEWAY HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HALL AUTOMOTIVE GROUP, INCORPORATED; HALL HYUNDAI NEWPORT NEWS, LLC; HALL HYUNDAI, LLC; HYUNDAI MOTOR AMERICA, INCORPORATED; MILLER AUTO SALES, INCORPORATED; CAVALIER HYUNDAI, INCORPORATED; HARRISONBURG AUTO MALL, LLC; JAMES CITY COUNTY ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED; MALLOY HYUNDAI; POHANKA AUTO CENTER, INCORPORATED; PRICE HYUNDAI CORPORATION; PRIORITY GREENBRIER AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED; PRIORITY IMPORTS NEWPORT NEWS, INCORPORATED; ROBERT WOODALL CHEVROLET, INCORPORATED; TYSINGER MOTOR COMPANY, INCORPORATED; WBM, INCORPORATED, d/b/a West Broad Hyundai; WRIGHT WAY AUTOMOTIVE, INCORPORATED, Defendants - Appellees.

ALIM ADBURAHMAN; JOHN ABEL; LENA ABEL; TAMARA ADAMS; BRANDON ADAMS; ASHRAS AHMADI; WADHAH AL-HADDAD; CLAUDIA
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