Anaya v. Baker, 664-69.

Decision Date22 June 1970
Docket NumberNo. 664-69.,664-69.
Citation427 F.2d 73
PartiesLeo ANAYA, Petitioner-Appellant, v. J. E. BAKER, Warden, Respondent-Appellee.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Tenth Circuit

Thomas T. Crumpacker, Denver, Colo., for appellant.

Joseph F. Baca, Sp. Asst. Atty. Gen., Albuquerque, N. M. (James A. Maloney, Atty. Gen., Santa Fe, N. M., on the brief), for appellee.

Before MURRAH, Chief Judge, and HILL and HICKEY, Circuit Judges.

HICKEY, Circuit Judge.

On February 24, 1964, Anaya was indicted by a state Grand Jury for violation of the statutes prohibiting the sale and possession of marijuana. He was extradicted from California and brought before the New Mexico court for arraignment on April 17, 1964. Anaya was without counsel and requested that counsel be appointed. The trial court; after questioning Anaya briefly concluded he was not a pauper and refused to appoint counsel for him despite Anaya's protestations.

Anaya defended himself at a jury trial on June 16, 1964, which resulted in a hung jury. He was tried again without counsel on December 8, 1964, by a different judge who relied on the previous ruling that Anaya was not entitled to counsel. He was convicted and sentenced to a term of 2-10 years and was fined. State court appeal and post-conviction remedies have been exhausted thereby establishing the matter as properly before the federal courts.

In March, 1969, Anaya filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in the Federal District Court for the District of New Mexico. By agreement of all parties the hearing was limited to oral argument with records of all prior proceedings in the New Mexico state courts being introduced as the only evidence. The court denied the petition without probing the fairness of the initial proceedings which had resulted in Anaya's conviction. The sole issue raised is whether or not Anaya was entitled to have counsel appointed to defend him at the time of his arraignment and trial in 1964.

On April 17, 1964, the time of arraignment, and June 16, 1964, the date of trial without counsel, § 41-11-2 N.M. Stat.Ann. (1953) constituted the law of that state relative to appointment of counsel. The statute was enacted to implement N.M.Const. Art. 2 § 141 and the Sixth Amendment of the United States Constitution.2

The New Mexico statute directs in part, "The court * * * is hereby authorized and required to assign to such person counsel not exceeding two 2, if the prisoner has not the financial means to procure counsel * * *." § 41-11-2 N.M.Stat.Ann. (1953).

The transcript reflects that the state trial court at the arraignment, in determining whether Anaya was entitled to appointed counsel under the above statute, declared that to qualify a defendant must be a pauper. The court defined "pauper" as "a man with no property or means or money or any way to get any." Black's Law Dictionary, Bouvier's Law Dictionary and Random House Dictionary all define a pauper as one so poor that he must be supported at the public expense. Because the trial court felt that Anaya was not a pauper, it declined to appoint counsel for Anaya.

By the time the second trial took place, the court by its rules had supplemented the above statute and constitutional provisions in Rule 92 of the New Mexico Rules of Civil Procedure, N.M. Stat.Ann. § 21-1-1(92) (1953). Essentially that rule provides that defendants charged with felonies are entitled to appointed counsel if it is determined that they are indigent. While it would seem that this language relying on "indigency" as the proper standard for determination of when an accused is entitled to appointed counsel would be a proper consideration after its effective date, the subsequent judicial proceedings, including the second trial, and all post-conviction appeals and relief as well as the federal trial court relied on the initial finding of the state trial judge. That judge concluded, "I am going to rule you are able to hire a lawyer for yourself or to pay your own lawyer," which was a conclusion based upon a pauper standard as heretofore indicated. Therefore, we examine the propriety of that standard in the light of the circumstances and events of the social structure at that time as reflected under federal constitutional mandate.

That the Sixth Amendment right to counsel guarantees to persons unable to obtain their own counsel the right to have counsel appointed in their behalf is a fairly fundamental proposition. Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458, 58 S.Ct. 1019, 82 L.Ed. 1461 (1938) (recognizing an indigent's right to appointed counsel in federal courts); Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335, 83 S. Ct....

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15 cases
  • U.S. v. Barcelon, 85-2100
    • United States
    • U.S. Court of Appeals — Tenth Circuit
    • November 18, 1987
    ...to the United States Constitution. Application of the Act carries both a statutory and a constitutional mandate. See Anaya v. Baker, 427 F.2d 73, 75 (10th Cir.1970) (application of the Act governed by mandates of the Sixth Amendment); see also United States v. Harris, 707 F.2d 653, 662 (2nd......
  • State ex rel. Partain v. Oakley, 13692
    • United States
    • West Virginia Supreme Court
    • July 23, 1976
    ...if he legitimately lacks the financial resources to employ an attorney, the court must appoint counsel to defend him. Anaya v. Baker, 427 F.2d 73 (10th Cir. 1970); U.S. v. Cohen, 419 F.2d 1124 (8th Cir. 1969); In re Smiley, 66 Cal.2d 606, 58 Cal.Rptr. 579, 427 P.2d 179 (1967). See also, Har......
  • U.S. v. Zelenka
    • United States
    • U.S. District Court — Middle District of Tennessee
    • November 24, 1999
    ...[S]ixth [A]mendment right to counsel"). Thus, application of the CJA is governed by the mandates of the Sixth Amendment. Anaya v. Baker, 427 F.2d 73, 75 (10th Cir.1970); see also Fed. R.Crim.P. Under the CJA, counsel must be appointed if the court is satisfied "after appropriate inquiry" th......
  • State of Okla. v. McCOY
    • United States
    • Oklahoma Supreme Court
    • September 21, 2010
    ...under the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. United States v. Barcelon, 833 F.2d 894, 896 (10th Cir.1987); Anaya v. Baker, 427 F.2d 73 (10th Cir.1970). The CJA contemplates that a substantial proportion of the appointments made under the Act will be to private attorneys who ......
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