Aronson v. Lewis

CourtUnited States State Supreme Court of Delaware
Writing for the CourtMOORE
Citation473 A.2d 805
PartiesSenior ARONSON, et al., Defendants Below, Appellants, v. Harry LEWIS, Plaintiff Below, Appellee. . Submitted:
Decision Date14 November 1983

Page 805

473 A.2d 805
Senior ARONSON, et al., Defendants Below, Appellants,
v.
Harry LEWIS, Plaintiff Below, Appellee.
Supreme Court of Delaware.
Submitted: Nov. 14, 1983.
Decided: March 1, 1984.

Page 807

On certification of interlocutory appeal from Court of Chancery under Supreme Court Rule 42(c). Reversed and remanded.

William T. Quillen (argued), Robert K. Payson, Peter M. Sieglaff, Potter, Anderson & Corroon, Wilmington; and Allan M. Pepper, Michael D. Braff, Kaye, Scholer, Fierman, Hays & Handler, New York City, for appellants.

Joseph A. Rosenthal (argued), Morris & Rosenthal, P.A., Wilmington; and Irving Bizar, Pincus, Ohrenstein, Bizar, D'Alessandro & Solomon, New York City, for appellee.

Before McNEILLY, MOORE and CHRISTIE, JJ.

MOORE, Justice:

In the wake of Zapata Corp. v. Maldonado, Del.Supr., 430 A.2d 779 (1981), this Court left a crucial issue unanswered: when is a stockholder's demand upon a board of directors, to redress an alleged wrong to the corporation, excused as futile prior to the filing of a derivative suit? We granted this interlocutory appeal to the defendants, Meyers Parking System, Inc. (Meyers), a Delaware corporation, and its directors, to review the Court of Chancery's denial of their motion to dismiss this action, pursuant to Chancery Rule 23.1, for the

Page 808

plaintiff's failure to make such a demand or otherwise demonstrate its futility. 1 The Vice Chancellor ruled that plaintiff's allegations raised a "reasonable inference" that the directors' action was unprotected by the business judgment rule. Thus, the board could not have impartially considered and acted upon the demand. See Lewis v. Aronson, Del.Ch., 466 A.2d 375, 381 (1983).

We cannot agree with this formulation of the concept of demand futility. In our view demand can only be excused where facts are alleged with particularity which create a reasonable doubt that the directors' action was entitled to the protections of the business judgment rule. Because the plaintiff failed to make a demand, and to allege facts with particularity indicating that such demand would be futile, we reverse the Court of Chancery and remand with instructions that plaintiff be granted leave to amend the complaint.

I.

The issues of demand futility rest upon the allegations of the complaint. The plaintiff, Harry Lewis, is a stockholder of Meyers. The defendants are Meyers and its ten directors, some of whom are also company officers.

In 1979, Prudential Building Maintenance Corp. (Prudential) spun off its shares of Meyers to Prudential's stockholders. Prior thereto Meyers was a wholly owned subsidiary of Prudential. Meyers provides parking lot facilities and related services throughout the country. Its stock is actively traded over-the-counter.

This suit challenges certain transactions between Meyers and one of its directors, Leo Fink, who owns 47% of its outstanding stock. Plaintiff claims that these transactions were approved only because Fink personally selected each director and officer of Meyers. 2

Prior to January 1, 1981, Fink had an employment agreement with Prudential which provided that upon retirement he was to become a consultant to that company for ten years. This provision became operable when Fink retired in April 1980. 3 Thereafter, Meyers agreed with Prudential to share Fink's consulting services and reimburse Prudential for 25% of the fees paid Fink. Under this arrangement Meyers paid Prudential $48,332 in 1980 and $45,832 in 1981.

On January 1, 1981, the defendants approved an employment agreement between Meyers and Fink for a five year term with provision for automatic renewal each year thereafter, indefinitely. Meyers agreed to pay Fink $150,000 per year, plus a bonus of 5% of its pre-tax profits over $2,400,000. Fink could terminate the contract at any time, but Meyers could do so only upon six months' notice. At termination, Fink was to become a consultant to Meyers and be paid $150,000 per year for the first three years, $125,000 for the next three years, and $100,000 thereafter for life. Death benefits were also included. Fink agreed to devote his best efforts and substantially his entire business time to advancing Meyers' interests. The agreement also provided

Page 809

that Fink's compensation was not to be affected by any inability to perform services on Meyers' behalf. Fink was 75 years old when his employment agreement with Meyers was approved by the directors. There is no claim that he was, or is, in poor health.

Additionally, the Meyers board approved and made interest-free loans to Fink totalling $225,000. These loans were unpaid and outstanding as of August 1982 when the complaint was filed. At oral argument defendants' counsel represented that these loans had been repaid in full.

The complaint charges that these transactions had "no valid business purpose", and were a "waste of corporate assets" because the amounts to be paid are "grossly excessive", that Fink performs "no or little services", and because of his "advanced age" cannot be "expected to perform any such services". The plaintiff also charges that the existence of the Prudential consulting agreement with Fink prevents him from providing his "best efforts" on Meyers' behalf. Finally, it is alleged that the loans to Fink were in reality "additional compensation" without any "consideration" or "benefit" to Meyers.

The complaint alleged that no demand had been made on the Meyers board because:

13. ... such attempt would be futile for the following reasons:

(a) All of the directors in office are named as defendants herein and they have participated in, expressly approved and/or acquiesced in, and are personally liable for, the wrongs complained of herein.

(b) Defendant Fink, having selected each director, controls and dominates every member of the Board and every officer of Meyers.

(c) Institution of this action by present directors would require the defendant-directors to sue themselves, thereby placing the conduct of this action in hostile hands and preventing its effective prosecution.

Complaint, at p 13.

The relief sought included the cancellation of the Meyers-Fink employment contract and an accounting by the directors, including Fink, for all damage sustained by Meyers and for all profits derived by the directors and Fink.

II.

Defendants moved to dismiss for plaintiff's failure to make demand on the Meyers board prior to suit, or to allege with factual particularity why demand is excused. See Del. Ch.Ct.R. 23.1, supra.

After recounting the allegations, the trial judge noted that the demand requirement of Rule 23.1 is a rule of substantive right designed to give a corporation the opportunity to rectify an alleged wrong without litigation, and to control any litigation which does arise. Lewis, 466 A.2d at 380. According to the Vice Chancellor, the test of futility is "whether the Board, at the time of the filing of the suit, could have impartially considered and acted upon the demand". Id. at 381.

As part of this formulation, the trial judge stated that interestedness is one factor affecting impartiality, and indicated that the business judgment rule is a potential defense to allegations of director interest, and hence, demand futility. Id. However, the court observed that to establish demand futility, a plaintiff need not allege that the challenged transaction could never be deemed a product of business judgment. Id. Rather, the Vice Chancellor maintained that a plaintiff "must only allege facts which, if true, show that there is a reasonable inference that the business judgment rule is not applicable for purposes of considering a pre-suit demand pursuant to Rule 23.1". Id. The court concluded that this transaction permitted such an inference. Id. at 384-86.

Upon these formulations, the Court of Chancery addressed the plaintiff's arguments

Page 810

as to the futility of demand. Id. at 381-84. The trial judge correctly noted that futility is gauged by the circumstances existing at the commencement of a derivative suit. This disposed of plaintiff's argument that defendants' motion to dismiss established board hostility and the futility of demand. Id. at 381.

The Vice Chancellor then dealt with plaintiff's contention that Fink, as a 47% shareholder of Meyers, dominated and controlled each director, thereby making demand futile. Id. at 381-83. Plaintiff also argued that Fink's interest, when combined with the shareholdings of four other defendants, amounted to 57.5% of Meyers' outstanding shares. Id. at 381. After noting the presumptions under the business judgment rule that a board's actions are taken in good faith and in the best interests of the corporation, the Court of Chancery ruled that mere board approval of a transaction benefiting a substantial, but non-majority, shareholder will not overcome the presumption of propriety. Id. at 382. Specifically, the court observed that:

A plaintiff, to properly allege domination of the Board, particularly domination based on ownership of less than a majority of the corporation's stock, in order to excuse a pre-suit demand, must allege ownership plus other facts evidencing control to demonstrate that the Board could not have exercised its independent business judgment.

Id.

As to the combined 57.5% control claim, the court stated that there were no factual allegations regarding the alignment of the four directors with Fink, such as a claim that they were beneficiaries of the Meyers-Fink agreement. Id. at 382, 383. Because it was not alleged in the complaint, the court rejected plaintiff's argument that, as evidence of alignment with Fink, two of the directors have "similar" compensation agreements with Meyers. Id. at 383.

Turning to plaintiff's allegations of board approval, participation in, and/or acquiescence in the wrong, the trial court focused on the underlying transaction to determine whether the board's action was wrongful and not protected by the...

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1473 practice notes
  • King v. Douglass, Civil Action No. H-96-1033.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. Southern District of Texas
    • December 23, 1996
    ...of a valid exercise of business judgment in the honest belief that the action served the best interest of the company. Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 814 (1984). Thus to plead a derivative action, Plaintiffs here need to allege facts that demonstrate that directors were incapable of making......
  • U.S. v. De La Mata, Nos. 00-10201
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (11th Circuit)
    • September 27, 2001
    ...opposed to a benefit which devolves upon the corporation or all stockholders generally. Id. (quotationomitted); see also Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984). In this way, F.S. § 607.0831(3)(c) establishes that it is not inappropriate, per se, for a director to derive personal be......
  • In re Patterson Companies, Inc. Securities, No. 05cv1757(DSD/JJG).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 8th Circuit. United States District Court of Minnesota
    • March 20, 2007
    ...Inc., Sec. Litig., 222 F.R.D. 603, 606 (D.Minn.2004) (citing Janssen, 662 N.W.2d at 883 and collecting cases). Compare Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 814 (Del.1984) (demand futile if reasonable doubt exists whether majority of directors were disinterested or able to act independently or it......
  • Matson v. Alpert (In re Landamerica Fin. Grp., Inc.), Bankruptcy No. 08–35994.
    • United States
    • United States Bankruptcy Courts. Fourth Circuit. U.S. Bankruptcy Court — Eastern District of Virginia
    • March 1, 2012
    ...requisite care in the discharge of their duties.” Werbowsky v. Collomb, 362 Md. 581, 766 A.2d 123, 138–39 (2001) (citing Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del.1984)). The LES Defendants disagree with this application of the Business Judgment Rule. Citing the case of Wittman v. Crooke, 120 Md.......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1450 cases
  • King v. Douglass, Civil Action No. H-96-1033.
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. United States District Courts. 5th Circuit. Southern District of Texas
    • December 23, 1996
    ...of a valid exercise of business judgment in the honest belief that the action served the best interest of the company. Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 814 (1984). Thus to plead a derivative action, Plaintiffs here need to allege facts that demonstrate that directors were incapable of making......
  • U.S. v. De La Mata, Nos. 00-10201
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (11th Circuit)
    • September 27, 2001
    ...opposed to a benefit which devolves upon the corporation or all stockholders generally. Id. (quotationomitted); see also Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984). In this way, F.S. § 607.0831(3)(c) establishes that it is not inappropriate, per se, for a director to derive personal be......
  • In re Patterson Companies, Inc. Securities, No. 05cv1757(DSD/JJG).
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 8th Circuit. United States District Court of Minnesota
    • March 20, 2007
    ...Inc., Sec. Litig., 222 F.R.D. 603, 606 (D.Minn.2004) (citing Janssen, 662 N.W.2d at 883 and collecting cases). Compare Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 814 (Del.1984) (demand futile if reasonable doubt exists whether majority of directors were disinterested or able to act independently or it......
  • Matson v. Alpert (In re Landamerica Fin. Grp., Inc.), Bankruptcy No. 08–35994.
    • United States
    • United States Bankruptcy Courts. Fourth Circuit. U.S. Bankruptcy Court — Eastern District of Virginia
    • March 1, 2012
    ...requisite care in the discharge of their duties.” Werbowsky v. Collomb, 362 Md. 581, 766 A.2d 123, 138–39 (2001) (citing Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del.1984)). The LES Defendants disagree with this application of the Business Judgment Rule. Citing the case of Wittman v. Crooke, 120 Md.......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
14 firm's commentaries
  • A First Sighting Of Zuckerberg Decision In California
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • June 23, 2022
    ...as futile." (Ibid.) This new test supersedes the tests for demand futility adopted by the Delaware Supreme Court in Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del. 1984) and Rales v. Blasband, 634 A.2d 927 (Del. California courts have applied both Aronson (Bader v. Anderson, 179 Cal. App. 4th 775 (200......
  • Gibson Dunn Offers 2021 Year-End Securities Litigation Update
    • United States
    • LexBlog United States
    • March 1, 2022
    ...1034 (Del. 2021) (en banc), adopted a three-part demand futility test that blended the long-standing tests set forth in Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del. 1984) (for affirmative decisions made by a majority of the same board considering the demand, which focused on the substance of the ch......
  • Delaware Supreme Court Clarifies The Standards For Demand Futility
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • November 2, 2021
    ...took the opportunity to modernize the decades-old demand-futility standards articulated in a pair of prior decisions: Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del. 1984), and Rales v. Blasband, 634 A.2d 927 (Del. The Demand-Futility Standard As a general matter, shareholder derivative suits represen......
  • Delaware Supreme Court Clarifies The Standards For Demand Futility
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • November 2, 2021
    ...took the opportunity to modernize the decades-old demand-futility standards articulated in a pair of prior decisions: Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805 (Del. 1984), and Rales v. Blasband, 634 A.2d 927 (Del. The Demand-Futility Standard As a general matter, shareholder derivative suits represen......
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6 books & journal articles
  • Bankruptcy & The Benefit Corporation.
    • United States
    • American Bankruptcy Law Journal Vol. 96 Nbr. 1, January 2022
    • January 1, 2022
    ...or officers who stand to benefit personally from a transaction or other decision should abstain from the decision. See Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984) (holding that directors and officers who stand to gain personally, or who "appear on both sides of a transaction," are likel......
  • Corporate Governance Reform and the Sustainability Imperative.
    • United States
    • Yale Law Journal Vol. 131 Nbr. 4, February 2022
    • February 1, 2022
    ...& Daniel R. Fischel, Limited Liability and the Corporation, 52 U. CHI. L. REV. 89, 93-97(1985). (122.) See, e.g., Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812-13 (Del. 1984); DEL. CODE ANN. tit. 8, [section][section] 102(b)(7), 145 (123.) See Gagliardi v. TriFoods Int'l, Inc., 683 A.2d 1049, 105......
  • Corporate agency problems and dequity contracts.
    • United States
    • The Journal of Corporation Law Vol. 36 Nbr. 1, September 2010
    • September 22, 2010
    ...an informed basis, in good faith, and in the honest belief that the action [is] in the best interest of the company." Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984). The common rationale advanced by commentators to justify existence of the business judgment doctrine is that it is instrumen......
  • The Case for Corporate Action on Climate Change
    • United States
    • Environmental Law Reporter Nbr. 48-5, May 2018
    • May 1, 2018
    ...safeguards exculpating directors from liability. Contractual indemniication and insurance may also be available. 25. Aronson v. Lewis, 473 A.2d 805, 812 (Del. 1984). 26. Smith v. Van Gorkom, 488 A.2d 858, 872 (Del. 1985) (quoting Aronson , 473 A.2d at 812). 27. Id . at 873. 28. his conclusi......
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