Berkson v. Gogo LLC, No. 14–CV–1199.

CourtUnited States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
Writing for the CourtJACK B. WEINSTEIN, Senior District Judge
Citation97 F.Supp.3d 359
PartiesAdam BERKSON, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, and Kerry Welsh, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs, v. GOGO LLC, and Gogo Inc., Defendants.
Docket NumberNo. 14–CV–1199.
Decision Date08 April 2015

97 F.Supp.3d 359

Adam BERKSON, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, and Kerry Welsh, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, Plaintiffs
v.
GOGO LLC, and Gogo Inc., Defendants.

No. 14–CV–1199.

United States District Court, E.D. New York.

Signed April 8, 2015.
Filed April 9, 2015.


97 F.Supp.3d 364

George Volney Granade, II, Michael Robert Reese, Reese LLP, New York, NY, for Plaintiffs.

Anthony Joseph Laura, Epstein Becker Green, New York, NY, for Defendants.

MEMORANDUM & ORDER

JACK B. WEINSTEIN, Senior District Judge:

Table of Contents
I. Introduction 365
II. Procedural History 367
III. Facts 368
A. Defendant Gogo 368
B. Monthly Service Charge 368
C. Plaintiff Welsh 368
1. Sign–In Portal in August 2011 370
2. Create Account Page 371
D. Plaintiff Berkson 373
1. Sign–In Portal Since 2012 373
2. Create Account Page 374
E. Relationship Between Gogo Inc. and Gogo LLC 376
IV. Assessing Attributes of the “Average Internet User” 377
A. Studies 377
B. Anecdotal Evidence 381
C. The Reasonable Communicativeness Test 381
V. Contract Formation and Assent 383
A. Legal Research and Scholarship 383
1. “Informed Minority” Hypothesis 383
2. American Bar Association Working Group 384
3. Traditional Contract Doctrine and the Internet Age 384
B. Law 387
1. Choice of Law 387
2. Common Law Contracting 388
a. Acceptance 388
b. Adhesion Contracts 388
c. Unconscionability 391
i. Procedural 391
ii. Substantive 391
d. Material Terms and Material Alterations 392
e. Notice 393
3. Electronic Adhesion Contracts 394
a. Browsewrap 395
b. Clickwrap 397
c. Scrollwrap 398
d. Sign–in–wrap 399
e. General Principles 401
4. Assessing Validity and
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89 practice notes
  • United States v. Bosyk, No. 18-4302
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • August 1, 2019
    ...and highlighted in blue and that you can click on in order to open a new web page are an example of a hyperlink." Berkson v. Gogo LLC , 97 F. Supp. 3d 359, 373 n.2 (E.D.N.Y. 2015) (citation omitted).5 Relatedly, the content to which a URL navigates and the link itself could "originate[ ]" i......
  • United States v. R.V., 14–CR–0316
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • January 21, 2016
    ...States using the internet in 2014), http://www.pewinternet.org/data-trend/internet-use/latest-stats; see also Berkson v. Gogo LLC, 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 377 (E.D.N.Y.2015) (same). At this point, there was “near-saturation usage among those living in households earning $75,000 or more (99%), you......
  • Corwin v. NYC Bike Share, LLC, 14–CV–1285 (SN)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • March 1, 2017
    ...assent"). Accordingly, most lower courts have enforced such contracts, absent extraordinary circumstances. See Berkson v. Gogo LLC , 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 397 (E.D.N.Y. 2015) (collecting cases); Centrifugal Force, Inc. v. Softnet Commc'n, Inc. , No. 08-CV-5463 (CM), 2011 WL 744732, at *7 (S.D.N......
  • Nicosia v. Amazon.com, Inc., 14-CV-4513 (ILG) (LB)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • June 14, 2019
    ...as creating an account, see, e.g., Meyer v. Uber Technologies, Inc. , 868 F.3d 66, 70-71, 81-82 (2d Cir. 2017) ; Berkson v. Gogo LLC, 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 372-373, 374-375 (E.D.N.Y. 2015), executing a purchase order, see, e.g., Nicosia , 834 F.3d at 227, 241-242, or downloading an application,......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
88 cases
  • United States v. Bosyk, No. 18-4302
    • United States
    • United States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
    • August 1, 2019
    ...and highlighted in blue and that you can click on in order to open a new web page are an example of a hyperlink." Berkson v. Gogo LLC , 97 F. Supp. 3d 359, 373 n.2 (E.D.N.Y. 2015) (citation omitted).5 Relatedly, the content to which a URL navigates and the link itself could "originate[ ]" i......
  • United States v. R.V., 14–CR–0316
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • January 21, 2016
    ...States using the internet in 2014), http://www.pewinternet.org/data-trend/internet-use/latest-stats; see also Berkson v. Gogo LLC, 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 377 (E.D.N.Y.2015) (same). At this point, there was “near-saturation usage among those living in households earning $75,000 or more (99%), you......
  • Corwin v. NYC Bike Share, LLC, 14–CV–1285 (SN)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. Southern District of New York
    • March 1, 2017
    ...assent"). Accordingly, most lower courts have enforced such contracts, absent extraordinary circumstances. See Berkson v. Gogo LLC , 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 397 (E.D.N.Y. 2015) (collecting cases); Centrifugal Force, Inc. v. Softnet Commc'n, Inc. , No. 08-CV-5463 (CM), 2011 WL 744732, at *7 (S.D.N......
  • Nicosia v. Amazon.com, Inc., 14-CV-4513 (ILG) (LB)
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 2nd Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of New York)
    • June 14, 2019
    ...as creating an account, see, e.g., Meyer v. Uber Technologies, Inc. , 868 F.3d 66, 70-71, 81-82 (2d Cir. 2017) ; Berkson v. Gogo LLC, 97 F.Supp.3d 359, 372-373, 374-375 (E.D.N.Y. 2015), executing a purchase order, see, e.g., Nicosia , 834 F.3d at 227, 241-242, or downloading an application,......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
1 firm's commentaries
  • Web Design Accessibility Can Aid Enforcement Of Terms
    • United States
    • Mondaq United States
    • July 21, 2022
    ...for formal enforceability guidelines. Footnotes 1. Meyer v. Uber Techs., Inc., 868 F.3d 66, 75 (2d Cir. 2017). 2. Berkson v. Gogo LLC, 97 F. Supp. 3d 359, 394-95 (E.D.N.Y. 3. Sarchi v. Uber Techs., Inc., 268 A.3d 258, 268 (2022 ME 8). 4. Meyer, 868 F.3d at 76. 5. Sellers v. JustAnswer LLC, ......

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