Connolly v. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation Woodward Sand Company, Inc v. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation

Citation475 U.S. 211,106 S.Ct. 1018,89 L.Ed.2d 166
Decision Date26 February 1986
Docket NumberNos. 84-1555,84-1567,s. 84-1555
PartiesJohn L. CONNOLLY, et al., etc., Appellants, v. PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION, etc., et al. WOODWARD SAND COMPANY, INC., Appellant, v. PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION, etc., et al
CourtUnited States Supreme Court
Syllabus

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), enacted in 1974, established a pension plan termination insurance program whereby the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), a wholly owned Government corporation, collects insurance premiums from covered private retirement plans and provides benefits to participants if their plan terminates with insufficient assets to support the guaranteed benefits. The program covers both single-employer and multiemployer pension plans. With respect to the latter plans, ERISA delayed mandatory payment of guaranteed benefits until January 1, 1978, prior to which date the PBGC had discretionary authority to pay benefits upon the termination of a pension plan. As that date approached, Congress became concerned that a significant number of multiemployer plans were experiencing extreme financial hardship, and that implementation of mandatory guarantees might induce several large plans to terminate, thus subjecting the insurance system to liability beyond its means. After further delaying the effective date for the mandatory guarantees, Congress enacted the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 (MPPAA) requiring an employer withdrawing from a multiemployer pension plan to pay a fixed and certain debt to the plan amounting to the employer's proportionate share of the plan's "unfunded vested benefits." Appellant trustees administer a multiemployer pension plan for employers under collective-bargaining agreements covering employees in the construction industry in California and Nevada. Under the trust agreement and the plan, the employer's sole obligation is to pay the contributions required by the collective-bargaining agreements, and the employer's obligation for pension benefits is ended when the employer pays the contribution to the pension trust. Prior to enactment of the MPPAA, the trustees filed suit against the PBGC in Federal District Court, claiming, inter alia, that ERISA was unconstitutional as depriving the trustees, the employers, and the plan participants of property without proper compensation. During the course of the litigation, the MPPAA was enacted, and the District Court permitted the trustees to file an amended complaint to include a challenge to that Act. Ultimately, the District Court granted summary judgment in the PBGC's favor, rejecting appellants' argument that imposition of withdrawal liability under the MPPAA violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment.

Held: The withdrawal liability provisions of the MPPAA do not violate the Taking Clause. Pp. 221-228.

(a) In these cases, the United States under the MPPAA has taken nothing for its own use and only has nullified a contractual provision limiting liability by imposing an additional obligation that is otherwise within Congress' power to impose. That the statutory withdrawal liability will operate in this manner and will redound to the benefit of the pension trust does not justify a holding that the withdrawal liability provisions violate the Taking Clause. Pp. 221-224.

(b) In identifying a "taking" forbidden by the Taking Clause, three factors should be considered: (1) "the economic impact of the regulation on the claimant"; (2) "the extent to which the regulation has interfered with distinct investment-backed expectations"; and (3) "the character of the governmental action." Penn Central Transportation Co. v. New York City, 438 U.S. 104, 124, 98 S.Ct. 2646, 2659, 57 L.Ed.2d 631. Examining the MPPAA in light of these factors supports the conclusion that the imposition of withdrawal liability does not constitute a compensable taking under the Taking Clause. The interference with an employer's property rights resulting from requiring the employer to fund its share of the pension plan obligation arises from a public program that adjusts the benefits and burdens of economic life to promote the common good and does not constitute a taking requiring Government compensation. As to the severity of the MPPAA's economic impact, there is nothing to show that the withdrawal liability imposed on an employer will always be out of proportion to its experience with the pension plan. And as to interference with reasonable investment-backed expectations, employers had more than sufficient notice not only that pension plans were being regulated at the time the MPPAA was enacted but also that withdrawal itself might trigger additional financial obligations. Pp. 224-228.

631 F.Supp. 640, affirmed.

WHITE, J., delivered the opinion for a unanimous Court. O'CONNOR, J., filed a concurring opinion, in which POWELL, J., joined, post, p. 228.

Wayne Jett, Los Angeles, Cal., for appellants in No. 84-1555.

Richard M. Freemann, for appellant in No. 84-1567.

Baruch A. Fellner, Washington, D.C., for appellees in both cases.

Justice WHITE delivered the opinion of the Court.

In Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation v. R.A. Gray & Co., 467 U.S. 717, 104 S.Ct. 2709, 81 L.Ed.2d 601 (1984), the Court held that retroactive application of the withdrawal liability provisions of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 did not violate the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In these cases, we address the question whether the withdrawal liability provisions of the Act are valid under the Clause of the Fifth Amendment that forbids the taking of private property for public use without just compensation.

I
A.

The background and legislative history of both the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), 88 Stat. 829, 29 U.S.C. § 1001 et seq., and the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 (MPPAA or Act), 94 Stat. 1208, 29 U.S.C. §§ 1381-1461, are set forth in detail in Gray, supra, at 720-725, 104 S.Ct., at 2713-2715. We therefore only summarize the relevant portions of that description for purposes of our discussion here.

Congress enacted ERISA in 1974 to provide comprehensive regulation for private pension plans. In addition to prescribing standards for the funding, management, and benefit provisions of these plans, ERISA also established a system of pension benefit insurance. This "comprehensive and reticulated statute" was designed "to ensure that employees and their beneficiaries would not be deprived of anticipated retirement benefits by the termination of pension plans before sufficient funds have been accumulated in the plans. . . . Congress wanted to guarantee that 'if a worker has been promised a defined pension benefit upon retirement—and if he has fulfilled whatever conditions are required to obtain a vested benefit—he will actually receive it.' " 467 U.S., at 720, 104 S.Ct., at 2713, quoting Nachman Corp. v. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, 446 U.S. 359, 361-362, 374-375, 100 S.Ct. 1723, 1726, 1733, 64 L.Ed.2d 354 (1980) (citations omitted).

To achieve this goal of protecting "anticipated retirement benefits," Congress created the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC), a wholly owned Government corporation, to administer an insurance program for participants in both single-employer and multiemployer pension plans. 29 U.S.C. § 1302 (1976 ed.). For single-employer plans that were in default, ERISA immediately obligated the PBGC to pay benefits. § 1381. With respect to multiemployer plans, ERISA delayed mandatory payment of guaranteed benefits until January 1, 1978. Until that date, Congress gave the PBGC discretionary authority to pay benefits upon the termination of multiemployer pension plans. §§ 1381(c)(2)-(4). As with single-employer plans, all contributors to covered multiemployer plans were assessed insurance premiums payable to the PBGC. If the PBGC exercised its discretion to pay benefits upon a plan's termination, all employers that had contributed to the plan during the five years preceding its termination were liable to the PBGC in amounts proportional to their shares of the plan's contributions during that period, subject to the limitation that any individual employer's liability could not exceed 30% of the employer's net worth. § 1362(b)(2).

During the period between the enactment of ERISA and 1978, when mandatory multiemployer guarantees were due to go into effect, the PBGC extended coverage to numerous plans. "Congress became concerned that a significant number of plans were experiencing extreme financial hardship," Gray, supra, 467 U.S., at 721, 104 S.Ct., at 2713, and that implementation of mandatory guarantees for multiemployer plans might induce several large plans to terminate, thus subjecting the insurance system to liability beyond its means. As a result, Congress delayed the effective date for the mandatory guarantees for 18 months, Pub.L. 95-214, 91 Stat. 1501, and directed the PBGC to prepare a report analyzing the problems of multiemployer plans and recommending possible solutions. See S.Rep. No. 95-570, pp. 1-4 (1977), U.S.Code Cong. & Admin.News 1977, pp. 4128, 4130; H.R.Rep. No. 95-706, p. 1 (1977).

The PBGC's Report found, inter alia, that "ERISA did not adequately protect plans from the adverse consequences that resulted when individual employers terminate their participation in, or withdraw from, multiemployer plans." Gray, supra, at 722, 104 S.Ct., at 2714. The "basic problem," the Report found, was the threat to the solvency and stability of multiemployer plans caused by employer withdrawals, which existing law actually encouraged. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, Multiemployer Study Required by P.L. 95-214, pp. 96-97 (1978) (PBGC Report).1 As the PBGC's Executive Director explained:

"A key problem of ongoing multiemployer plans, especially in declining industries, is the problem of employer...

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