Daniel v. American Bd. of Emergency Medicine

Decision Date07 October 2005
Docket NumberDocket No. 03-6163(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6165(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6167(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6157(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6153(L).,Docket No. 03-6185(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6187(XAP).,Docket No. 03-6177(XAP).
Citation428 F.3d 408
PartiesGregory F. DANIEL, M.D., Ian W. Cummings, M.D., John A. Timmons, M.D., Reed E. Paulson, M.D., Albert J. Romanosky, M.D., Bruce W. McNulty, M.D., On Behalf of Themselves and All Others Similarly Situated, Plaintiffs-Appellants, Joseph L. Albright, Jr., M.D., Lloyd G. Alch, M.D., Richard Alexander, M.D., Jeffrey S. Anderson, M.D., Robert J. Aquino, M.D., Yadon Arad, M.D., Joseph P. Arno, M.D., David E. Baum, M.D., James R. Beutnagel, M.D., Joel S. Bogner, M.D., Charles L. Boursier, M.D., Scott J. Campbell, M.D., Kenneth W. Cartaxo, M.D., Edgar H. Castellanos, M.D., Joseph F. Ceravolo, M.D., Manoj V. Chag, M.D., Patricia C. Chase, M.D., Kenneth G. Christian, Jr., M.D., Mark S. Clippinger, M.D., John T. Columbus, M.D., Michael Cooks, M.D., Craig J. Cott, M.D., Mary Dampier, M.D., David M. Davis, M.D., Patrick J. DiFonzo, M.D., Andrew B. Edwards, M.D., Nancy J. Ferguson, M.D., Denise F. Ferraris, M.D., Kathy W. Forred, M.D., Daniel S. Frank, M.D., Michael S. Gelfond, M.D., Michael G. Ginder, M.D., Keith S. Goldstein, M.D., Maria T. Granzotti, M.D., Robert E. Gross, M.D., Thomas K. Hall, M.D., John A. Hatherley, M.D., Anthony J. Horwitz, M.D., Donald A. Human, M.D., Jonathan A. Jarman, M.D., Jerry Jones, III, M.D., Mark R. Kaehler, M.D., Allen Kagan, M.D., K. Michael Keil, M.D., Martin E. Kernberg, M.D., Herschell King, M.D., M. Stephen Kramer, M.D., Steven M. Kushel, M.D., Charles J. Kutner, M.D., Richard E. Lally, M.D., Peter Lamelas, M.D., Lucille Lanna, M.D., Stephen G. Larkin, M.D., Phillip J. Lastella, M.D., Robert N. Leach, M.D., Richard E. Leahy, M.D., Arthur H. Legate, M.D., Jack M. Levin, M.D., Ronald J. Lugo, M.D., James W. Lunan, M.D., Soren S. Madden, M.D., Mian A. Majeed, M.D., Thomas A. Malone, M.D., Michael R. Monolescu, M.D., John A. Mardones, M.D., Gil Z. Marzinek, M.D., Stanley D. Meers, M.D., Douglas M. Middleton, M.D., Lance E. Montauk, M.D., Charles Jay Morris, M.D., J.D., Peter J. Muran, M.D., Julia I. Nathan, M.D., Kurt F. Papenfus, M.D., Jay L. Patankar, M.D., Howard A. Peth, Jr., M.D., Thomas J. Pliura, M.D., David A. Poggemeier, M.D., Yashbir S. Rana, M.D., Allan Jay Raskin, M.D., Karin V. Rhodes, M.D., Atwood L. Rice, III, M.D., Manuel A. Rivera, M.D., Albert J. James Rosenthal, M.D., John W. Sanders, M.D., Martin N. Schnell, M.D., Steven M. Schreiber, M.D., Michael J. Shaw, M.D., Robin R. Shaw, M.D., David M. Siwicki, M.D., Robert A. Slutsky, M.D., Robin P. Smith, D.O., Perry J. Spavento, M.D., Leo W. Sullivan, M.D., Robert B. Sussman, M.D., Michael S. Taplits, M.D., Richard E. Thistle, Jr., M.D., Hartley M. Thomas, M.D., Richard Y. Thorpe III, M.D., Jane E. Tonkin, M.D., William D. Torres, M.D., Allen G. Tucker, M.D., Laurie D. Vogel, M.D., Deborah S. Weber, M.D., Anthony T. White, M.D., Kipp A. Young, M.D. Plaintiffs-Appellants, Donald P. Ables, M.D., Carlos Alvarado, M.D., Daniel J. Anhalt, M.D., Robert W. Bates, M.D., George B. Beranek, M.D., Jeffrey D. Blodgett, D.O., Michael L. Brown, M.D., Philip A. Brown, M.D., Marianne C. Burke, M.D., Kwok Wai Chiu, M.D., David S. Clark, M.D., Daria M. Davidson, D.O., Sylvester A. Domme, Jr., M.D., Thomas L. Eaton, M.D., David S. Engelhardt, M.D., Michael C. Finger, M.D., William F. Flader, M.D., Jessica A. Furer, M.D., Kenneth J. Gallant, D.O., Virind D. Gupta, M.D., Steven D. Hanks, M.D., John R. Harris, M.D., Stanley E. Hartman, M.D., James W. Hayden, M.D., Beth E. Haynes, M.D., Joseph F. Hederman, M.D., Dan Heslinga, M.D., Jeffrey P. Howard, M.D., Gloria S. Huckeby, M.D., Raymond F. Jarris, Jr., M.D., Robert J. Jeddeloh, M.D., Daniel H. Kallmerten, M.D., James F. Kenny, M.D., Garry J. Kiernan, M.D., Jahangir Koleini, M.D., G. Thomas Kraus, M.D., Joseph B. Liebman, M.D., Robert Lippa, M.D., Etta Lovitt, M.D., Michael R. Lozano, M.D., Paul F. Paschall, M.D., Deborah Porter, M.D., Frank L. Prasnal, Jr., M.D., Peter J. Reden, M.D., Karl Richey, M.D., David J. Ricketts-Kingfisher, M.D., Coleen Riley, M.D., Rodrigo Rojas, M.D., Kathleen L. Roth, M.D., Julie M. Sabatinos, M.D., Louis Shicker, M.D., Chester J. Skiba, Jr., M.D., R. Giuseppi Slater, M.D., Lee Slavin, M.D., Ronald K. Sterrenberg, D.O., Thomas S. Talkowski, M.D., Robert S. Tano, M.D., Bruce R. Tizes, M.D., Monique M. Van Berkum, M.D., Louis V. Verre, D.O., Hector J. Villanueva, M.D., Barry A. Wayne, M.D., James A. Wichser, M.D., Joseph D. Zirneskie, M.D., Philip A. Zurowsky, M.D., Plaintiffs, v. AMERICAN BOARD OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Forsyth Memorial Hospital, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Mercy Catholic Medical Center-Misericordia Division, St. Anthony Hospital, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, Mercy Hospital and Medical Center, Methodist Hospital of Indiana, Saint Francis Hospital & Medical Center, Defendants-Appellees, Richard Stennes, Michael Bishop, Richard Braen, Joseph Clinton, Gerald Healy, Bruce Janiak, Scott M. Jones, Robert Knopp, Harvey Meislin, Benson Munger, Robert Neerhout, Douglas Rund, Judith Tintinalli, Michael Vance, Gerald Whelan, Henry A. Thiede, M.D., Richard I. Shader, M.D., Steven J. Davidson, M.D., Leonard D. Hudson, M.D., Children's Hospital (San Diego), Kettering Medical Center, Lincoln Medical & Mental Health Center, Lutheran General Hospital, Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hospital, Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center, Tri-City Medical Center, Ohio State University, Oregon Health Sciences University Hospital, University Medical Center (Tucson, Arizona), Frank A. Disney, M.D., The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Part of the Johns Hopkins Health System, Ohio State University Hospital, Porter Memorial Hospital, Riverside Methodist Hospitals, UCLA Medical Center, University of California (Irvine) Medical Center, University of California (San Diego) Medical Center, University Hospital-SUNY at Stony Brook, University Hospital at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Defendants, v. United States of America, Intervenor-Plaintiff.
CourtU.S. Court of Appeals — Second Circuit

Jeremy R. Kasha, Proskauer Rose LLP, New York, New York (Colin A. Underwood, Proskauer Rose LLP, New York New York; Ralph L. Halpern, Mitchell J. Banas, Jr., Jaeckle Fleischmann & Mugel LLP, Buffalo, New York, on the brief), for Plaintiff-Appellant Gregory F. Daniel, M.D., on behalf of himself and others similarly situated.

Jeffrey D. Ubersax, Jones Day, Cleveland, Ohio (Robert H. Rawson, Jr., Elizabeth A. Grove, on the brief), for Defendant-Appellee American Board of Emergency Medicine.

Jonathan A. Damon, LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene & MacRae, LLP, New York, New York, for Defendants-Appellees Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Loma Linda Medical Center and St. Anthony Hospital-Central.

Robert E. Glanville, Phillips Lytle, LLP, Buffalo, New York, for Defendant-Appellee Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors.

Douglass G. Hewitt, Michael Best & Friedrich, LLP, Chicago, Illinois, for Defendant-Appellee Methodist Hospital of Indiana.

Samuel W. Silver, Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for Defendant-Appellee Mercy Catholic Medical Center-Misericordia Division.

Nancy G. Lischer, Hinshaw & Culbertson, Chicago, Illinois, for Defendant-Appellee St. Francis Hospital & Medical Center.

Denise M. Gunter, Nelson, Mullins, Riley & Scarborough, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, for Defendant-Appellee Forsyth Memorial Hospital.

Before: McLAUGHLIN, KATZMANN, and RAGGI, Circuit Judges.

RAGGI, Circuit Judge:

Plaintiffs-appellants are licensed physicians who practice or had practiced emergency medicine throughout the United States although they did not complete formal residency training programs in that specialty. They allege that the defendants, the American Board of Emergency Medicine ("ABEM"), the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors ("CORD"), twenty-eight named hospitals, and various individuals now or previously associated with these institutions and organizations, colluded to restrain trade in connection with the practice of emergency medicine in violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act, see 15 U.S.C. § 1, and to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the market for ABEM-certified and -eligible doctors in violation of Section 2 of the Sherman Act, see id. § 2. Plaintiffs specifically complain that the defendants manipulated the residency training requirement for ABEM certification to limit the number of doctors certified in emergency medicine in order to guarantee super-competitive compensation for such doctors and to deny certification and its attendant compensation benefits to members of the plaintiff class.

Plaintiffs now appeal a judgment of the United States District Court for the Western District of New York (Richard J. Arcara, Judge; Leslie G. Foschio, Magistrate Judge), entered on June 20, 2003, dismissing their Second Amended Complaint for lack of antitrust standing. See Daniel v. American Bd. of Emergency Med., 269 F.Supp.2d 159 (W.D.N.Y.2003). Defendants insist that the case was properly dismissed not only for lack of antitrust standing but also for lack of personal jurisdiction and venue in the Western District of New York. We agree with the defendants that the lack of personal jurisdiction and venue supports dismissal. While such a conclusion might permit us to order transfer of this case to a district where personal jurisdiction and venue properly obtain, we conclude that such a transfer is not in the interests of justice in this case because the plaintiffs lack antitrust standing to pursue their claims....

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