Evans v. Chalmers, Nos. 11–1436

CourtUnited States Courts of Appeals. United States Court of Appeals (4th Circuit)
Writing for the CourtDIANA GRIBBON MOTZ
Citation703 F.3d 636
Decision Date17 December 2012
Docket Number11–1438,Nos. 11–1436,11–1460,11–1458,11–1453,11–1465.
PartiesDavid F. EVANS; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. Steven W. CHALMERS; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; Patrick Baker, Defendants–Appellants, and City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison; Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Defendants. David F. Evans; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants–Appellants, and Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Steven W. Chalmers; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Stephen Mihaich; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan; Patrick Baker, Defendants. Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants–Appellants, and Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor Dzau; City of Durham; Linwood Wilson; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; Stephen Mihaich; David Addison; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants. Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants–Appellants, and Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; The City of Durham, North Carolina; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; David Addison; Mark D. Gottlieb; Benjamin W. Himan; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants, Defendants. Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. The City of Durham, North Carolina; David Addison; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan, Defendants–Appellants, and Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants; Patrick Baker; Steven W. Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants. Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs–Appellees, v. City of Durham; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants–Appellants, and Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor J. Dzau; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants.

703 F.3d 636

David F. EVANS; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
Steven W. CHALMERS; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; Patrick Baker, Defendants–Appellants,
and
City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison; Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Defendants.

David F. Evans; Collin Finnerty; Reade Seligmann, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
City of Durham, North Carolina; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants–Appellants,
and
Michael Nifong; Linwood Wilson; Steven W. Chalmers; Beverly Council; Ronald Hodge; Jeff Lamb; Stephen Mihaich; Michael Ripberger; Lee Russ; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan; Patrick Baker, Defendants.

Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants–Appellants,
and
Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor Dzau; City of Durham; Linwood Wilson; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; Stephen Mihaich; David Addison; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants.

Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants–Appellants,
and
Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; The City of Durham, North Carolina; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; David Addison; Mark D. Gottlieb; Benjamin W. Himan; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants, Defendants.

Ryan McFadyen; Matthew Wilson; Breck Archer, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
The City of Durham, North Carolina; David Addison; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan, Defendants–Appellants,
and
Duke University; Duke University Police Department; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Leila Humphries; Phyllis Cooper; William F. Garber, III; James Schwab; Joseph Fleming; Jeffrey O. Best; Gary N. Smith; Greg Stotsenberg; Robert K. Steel; Richard H. Brodhead, Ph.D.; Peter Lange, Ph.D.; Tallman Trask, III, Ph.D.; John Burness; Larry Moneta, Ed.D.; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Private Diagnostic Clinic, PLLC; Julie Manly, MD; Theresa Arico, R.N.; Tara Levicy, R.N.; Michael Nifong; Stephen Mihaich; Edward Sarvis; Laird Evans; James T. Soukup; Kammie Michael; Linwood Wilson; Richard D. Clayton; DNA Security, Incorporated; Richard Clark; Brian Meehan, Ph.D.; Victor J. Dzau, MD; Allison Halton; Kemel Dawkins; Suzanne Wasiolek; Stephen Bryan; Matthew Drummond; Duke Police Defendants; Patrick Baker; Steven W. Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger, Defendants.

Edward Carrington; Casey J. Carroll; Michael P. Catalino; Gale Catalino; Thomas V. Clute; Kevin Coleman; Joshua R. Coveleski; Edward J. Crotty; Edward S. Douglas; Kyle Dowd; Patricia Dowd; Daniel Flannery; Richard Gibbs Fogarty; Zachary Greer; Irene Greer; Erik S. Henkelman; Steven W. Henkelman; John E. Jennison; Ben Koesterer; Mark Koesterer; Joyce Koesterer; Fred Krom; Peter J. Lamade; Adam Langley; Christopher Loftus; Daniel Loftus; Barbara Loftus; Anthony McDevitt; Glenn Nick; Nicholas O'Hara; Lynnda O'Hara; Daniel Oppedisano; Sam Payton; John Bradley Ross; Kenneth Sauer, III; Steve Schoeffel; Robert Schroeder; Devon Sherwood; Daniel Theodoridis; Bret Thompson; Christopher Tkac; Tracy Tkac; John Walsh, Jr.; Michael Ward; Robert Wellington, IV; William Wolcott; Michael Young, Plaintiffs–Appellees,
v.
City of Durham; Mark Gottlieb; Benjamin Himan; David Addison, Defendants–Appellants,
and
Patrick Baker; Steven Chalmers; Ronald Hodge; Lee Russ; Beverly Council; Jeff Lamb; Michael Ripberger; Duke University; Duke University Health Systems, Incorporated; Richard Brodhead; Peter Lange; Larry Moneta; John Burness; Tallman Trask; Suzanne Wasiolek; Matthew Drummond; Aaron Graves; Robert Dean; Tara Levicy; Theresa Arico; J. Wesley Covington; Kate Hendricks; Victor J. Dzau; Linwood Wilson; Stephen Mihaich; Marsha Covington, Executrix of the Estate of John Wesley Covington, Defendants.

Nos. 11–1436, 11–1438, 11–1453, 11–1458, 11–1460, 11–1465.

United States Court of Appeals,
Fourth Circuit.

Argued: Sept. 18, 2012.
Decided: Dec. 17, 2012.


[703 F.3d 641]


ARGUED:Michael A. Vatis, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP, New York, New York, for Appellants.
Christopher Nicholas Manning, Williams & Connolly, LLP, Washington, D.C.; Robert Christopher Ekstrand, Ekstrand & Ekstrand, LLP, Durham, North Carolina; Peter A. Patterson, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, Washington, D.C., for Appellees. ON BRIEF:Patricia P. Shields, D. Martin Warf, Troutman Sanders, LLP, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellants Steven W. Chalmers, Beverly Council, Ronald Hodge, Jeff Lamb, Michael Ripberger, Lee Russ, and Patrick Baker; Roger E. Warin, Matthew J. Herrington, Leah M. Quadrino, John P. Nolan, Steptoe & Johnson, LLP, Washington, D.C., Reginald B. Gillespie, Jr., Faison & Gillespie, Durham, North Carolina, for the City of Durham; Edwin M. Speas, Jr., Eric P. Stevens, Poyner & Spruill LLP, Raleigh, North Carolina, for Appellant Mark Gottlieb; Joel M. Craig, Henry W. Sappenfield, Kennon, Craver, PLLC, Durham, North Carolina, for Appellant Benjamin Himan; James B. Maxwell, Maxwell, Freeman & Bowman, PA, Durham, North Carolina, for David Addison. David S. Rudolf, Rudolf Widenhouse & Fialko, Charlotte, North Carolina, Richard D. Emery, Ilann M. Maazel, Emery Celli Brinckerhoff & Abady LLP, New York, New York, for Appellee Reade Seligmann; Robert M. Cary, Charles Davant IV, Ashley W. Hardin, Williams & Connolly, LLP, Washington, D.C., for Appellees David F. Evans, and Collin Finnerty. William J. Thomas II, Thomas, Ferguson & Mullins, LLP, Durham, North Carolina; Brian S. Koukoutchos, Mandeville, Louisiana; Charles J. Cooper, David H. Thompson, Cooper & Kirk, PLLC, Washington, D.C., for Appellees Carrington. Stefanie A. Sparks, Ekstrand & Ekstrand, LLP, Durham, North Carolina, for Appellees McFadyen.

Before WILKINSON, MOTZ, and GREGORY, Circuit Judges.


Affirmed in part, dismissed in part, reversed in part, and remanded by published opinion.
Judge MOTZ wrote the opinion, in which Judge WILKINSON concurred and Judge GREGORY concurred except as to Parts III–B and III–B.1. Judge WILKINSON wrote a concurring opinion. Judge GREGORY wrote an opinion concurring in part and dissenting in part.

OPINION

DIANA GRIBBON MOTZ, Circuit Judge:

These appeals arise from allegations that the City of Durham and its officials mishandled false rape charges made against members of the 2005–2006 Duke University lacrosse team. The City and its officials asserted various immunities from suit and on that basis moved to dismiss, or for summary judgment, as to all claims alleged against them. The district court granted those motions in part and denied them in part. The City and its officials appeal. There is no cross-appeal. For the reasons that follow, we affirm in

[703 F.3d 642]

part, dismiss in part, reverse in part, and remand for further proceedings.

I.

Three groups of plaintiffs brought these cases. We set forth the relevant facts as alleged in their amended complaints. Although the complaints are not identical, they differ only minimally. We note all relevant differences.

A.

According to the amended complaints, on the evening of March 13–14, 2006, many members of the Duke lacrosse team attended a party at the Durham, North Carolina home of team co-captains David Evans, Daniel Flannery, and Matthew Zash. One of the hosts had hired two exotic dancers, Crystal Mangum and Kim Pittman, to perform at the party. Mangum (who appeared to be intoxicated) and Pittman performed only briefly from midnight to 12:04. Approximately forty minutes later, the two women left the party together in Pittman's car.

After leaving the party, Mangum became belligerent and accused Pittman of stealing her money. Pittman pulled into a grocery store parking lot and asked a nearby security guard for assistance in removing Mangum from her car. After the guard determined that Mangum in fact was intoxicated, he called Durham police. When Sergeant John Shelton arrived at the scene, Mangum feigned unconsciousness. Sergeant Shelton instructed another officer to take Mangum to the Durham Access Center, an outpatient mental health...

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464 practice notes
  • Estate of Bryant v. Balt. Police Dep't, Civil Action No. ELH-19-384
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court (Maryland)
    • February 10, 2020
    ...foreseeable result of the act." Gilliam, 932 F.3d at 238; see Massey v. Ojaniit, 759 F.3d 343, 354-56 (4th Cir. 2014); Evans v. Chalmers, 703 F.3d 636, 647-48 (4th Cir. 2012).Page 42 Plaintiffs have stated a plausible due process claim against Detective Ritz and Analyst Verger for withholdi......
  • White v. City of Burlington, 1:18-cv-00969
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Middle District of North Carolina
    • September 30, 2019
    ...F.3d 241, 245 (4th Cir. 2017) ; see also Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, 395, 109 S.Ct. 1865, 104 L.Ed.2d 443 (1989) ; Evans v. Chalmers, 703 F.3d 636, 646 n.2 (4th Cir. 2012). White's § 1983 claims against Stalls and Wilkins clearly fall under the Fourth Amendment, as their actions were se......
  • Long v. Barr, Civil No. 1:15-cv-1642
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of Virginia)
    • April 2, 2020
    ...distinct alteration or extinguishment of "a right or status previously recognized by ... law." Id. ; see also Evans v. Chalmers , 703 F.3d 636, 654 (4th Cir. 2012) ("[A] plaintiff bringing a ‘stigma-plus’ claim under Paul must allege both a stigmatic statement and a state action that distin......
  • Kozel v. Kozel, Civil Action No.: 7:16–cv–01672–JMC
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court of South Carolina
    • March 8, 2018
    ...1983, Plaintiff must establish that there was not probable cause to bring the criminal proceedings against him. See Evans v. Chalmers , 703 F.3d 636, 647 (4th Cir. 2012) ("[a] malicious prosecution claim under § 1983 is properly understood as a Fourth Amendment claim for unreasonable seizur......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
464 cases
  • Estate of Bryant v. Balt. Police Dep't, Civil Action No. ELH-19-384
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court (Maryland)
    • February 10, 2020
    ...foreseeable result of the act." Gilliam, 932 F.3d at 238; see Massey v. Ojaniit, 759 F.3d 343, 354-56 (4th Cir. 2014); Evans v. Chalmers, 703 F.3d 636, 647-48 (4th Cir. 2012).Page 42 Plaintiffs have stated a plausible due process claim against Detective Ritz and Analyst Verger for withholdi......
  • White v. City of Burlington, 1:18-cv-00969
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. Middle District of North Carolina
    • September 30, 2019
    ...F.3d 241, 245 (4th Cir. 2017) ; see also Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386, 395, 109 S.Ct. 1865, 104 L.Ed.2d 443 (1989) ; Evans v. Chalmers, 703 F.3d 636, 646 n.2 (4th Cir. 2012). White's § 1983 claims against Stalls and Wilkins clearly fall under the Fourth Amendment, as their actions were se......
  • Long v. Barr, Civil No. 1:15-cv-1642
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court (Eastern District of Virginia)
    • April 2, 2020
    ...distinct alteration or extinguishment of "a right or status previously recognized by ... law." Id. ; see also Evans v. Chalmers , 703 F.3d 636, 654 (4th Cir. 2012) ("[A] plaintiff bringing a ‘stigma-plus’ claim under Paul must allege both a stigmatic statement and a state action that distin......
  • Kozel v. Kozel, Civil Action No.: 7:16–cv–01672–JMC
    • United States
    • United States District Courts. 4th Circuit. United States District Court of South Carolina
    • March 8, 2018
    ...1983, Plaintiff must establish that there was not probable cause to bring the criminal proceedings against him. See Evans v. Chalmers , 703 F.3d 636, 647 (4th Cir. 2012) ("[a] malicious prosecution claim under § 1983 is properly understood as a Fourth Amendment claim for unreasonable seizur......
  • Request a trial to view additional results

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