Fink v. State, 4-783A228

CourtCourt of Appeals of Indiana
Citation469 N.E.2d 466
Docket NumberNo. 4-783A228,4-783A228
PartiesJames R. FINK, Appellant (Defendant Below), v. STATE of Indiana, Appellee (Plaintiff Below).
Decision Date15 October 1984

Barry D. Sherman, Hammond, for appellant.

Linley E. Pearson, Atty. Gen. of Ind., Louis E. Ransdell, Deputy Atty. Gen., Indianapolis, for appellee.

YOUNG, Judge.

Defendant-Appellant James Fink appeals his conviction by jury of criminal confinement, a Class B felony, alleging that the trial court erred in denying his motion for discharge pursuant to Ind.Rules of Procedure, Criminal Rule 4, and in refusing his request to change counsel prior to trial.

The evidence at trial indicated that on August 6, 1982, defendant forcibly entered the victim's apartment and held her at knife-point. The defendant fled when a friend of the victim appeared on the scene. Fink was arrested on August 26, 1982, and charged with burglary as a Class B felony under IND.CODE 35-43-2-1. On November 4, he filed a pro se motion for speedy trial by jury. The judge granted this motion and rescheduled the trial for November 15.

On the date set for trial, the prosecutor dismissed the burglary charge and simultaneously refiled the charge as criminal confinement, also a Class B felony under IND.CODE 35-42-3-3. The prosecuting attorney in moving for dismissal of the burglary charge acknowledged that the same incident underlay both charges, stating, "The same crime has been refiled as a charge of criminal confinement ... under a different cause number." A new trial date was then set for April 18, 1983.

The defendant, continually incarcerated from the time of his arrest, interposed another speedy trial motion on February 16, 1983. On March 3, he made a motion for discharge under C.R. 4(B), which the judge denied.

Fink assails his subsequent conviction on grounds that he was entitled to discharge pursuant to C.R. 4. He first argues that the trial court should have discharged him under C.R. 4(A), which provides in relevant part:

No defendant shall be detained in jail on a charge, without a trial, for a period in aggregate embracing more than six (6) months from the date the criminal charge against such defendant is filed, or from the date of his arrest on such charge (whichever is later); except where a continuance was had on his motion, or the delay was caused by his act, or where there was not sufficient time to try him during such period because of congestion of the court calendar; provided, however, that in the last-mentioned circumstance, the prosecuting attorney shall make such statement in a motion for continuance.... Any defendant so detained shall be released on his own recognizance at the conclusion of the six-month period aforesaid and may be held to answer a criminal charge against him within the limitations provided for in subsection (C) of this rule.

The defendant in this case was incarcerated for almost eight months prior to commencement of his trial on April 18, 1983, with no delays in the proceedings attributable to the defense. Although Fink was entitled to release on recognizance at the expiration of the six-month period, he raised no objection under this provision to his continued incarceration. His sole remedy under C.R. 4(A), moreover, is release on recognizance pending trial and not discharge following conviction. Collins v. State, (1977) 266 Ind. 430, 364 N.E.2d 750; Lewis v. State, (1976) 264 Ind. 288, 342 N.E.2d 859.

Appellant next contends that the trial court erred in denying his motion for discharge under C.R. 4(B)(1), which provides:

If the defendant held in jail on an indictment or an affidavit shall move for an early trial, he shall be discharged if not brought to trial within seventy (70) calendar days from the date of such motion, except where a continuance within said period is had on his motion, or the delay is otherwise caused by his act, or where there was not sufficient time to try him during such seventy (70) calendar days because of the congestion of the court calendar. Provided, however, that in the last-mentioned circumstance, the prosecuting attorney shall file a timely motion for continuance as set forth in subdivision (A) of this rule.

His original speedy trial motion having been granted, Fink was nonetheless compelled to await trial for 166 days following this motion, a delay occasioned by the State's dismissal of one charge and refiling of another based on the same criminal conduct. The defendant was held continuously under one affidavit of probable cause, and the criminal confinement charge represented the underlying felony of the earlier burglary charge.

We can only view the state's dismissal and simultaneous refiling of such related charges as one continuous prosecution. This analysis comports with the statutory language regarding defendant's detention "on an indictment or an affidavit," as well as with Indiana decisions discussing the posture of factually-related offenses for purposes of C.R. 4. Our courts have held that not only are lesser included offenses barred by the defendant's discharge pursuant to C.R. 4, Small v. State, (1972) 259 Ind. 349, 287 N.E.2d 334, but also that charges based on the same criminal acts or arising out of the same set of facts may not be prosecuted following dismissal of the related offense for failure to comply with the requirements of C.R. 4. State v. Tharp, (1980) Ind.App., 406 N.E.2d 1242 (prosecution for conspiracy barred by dismissal of substantive offense); Pillars v. State, (1979) 180 Ind.App. 679, 390 N.E.2d 679 (charges based on same criminal acts must all be prosecuted within one-year requirement of C.R. 4(C)). Although these cases arise under C.R. 4(C), we find their rationale equally applicable here and hold that an incarcerated defendant's invocation of the speedy trial rule may not be defeated by the simultaneous dismissal and refiling of related charges.

We would distinguish the situation here from that addressed in Shields v. State, (1983) Ind.App., 456 N.E.2d 1033, in which identical charges were dismissed and two months later refiled, so that the defendant was tried more than 70 days following his initial speedy trial motion. The court there held that the defendant was required to file a new motion for speedy trial under the subsequent information. The cases upon which Shields primarily relies, however, Parks v. State, (1979) 270 Ind. 689, 389 N.E.2d 286, and Cody v. State, (1972) 259 Ind. 570, 290 N.E.2d 38, cert. den., (1974) 416 U.S. 960, 94 S.Ct. 1978, 40 L.Ed.2d 311, hold only that delay of trial occasioned by the defendant's actions necessitate renewal of the speedy trial motion under C.R. 4(B). Entirely different considerations come into play where the state acts to delay trial in the face of an incarcerated defendant's demand for speedy trial. The court in Shields observes merely that every dismissal does not result in a per se violation of speedy trial rights; we find such a violation under the instant circumstances.

The decision in Shields reflects an understandable concern that defendants not be able to elude prosecution in cases where the state unavoidably must delay trial, e.g. to secure the attendance of a missing witness. This concern is similarly addressed by C.R. 4(D). In such instances, the state may justifiably dismiss and later refile charges without undue prejudice to the speedy trial rights of the defendant, who is released from detention in the interim. In the present case, however, the simultaneous dismissal and filing of related charges indicates a delay caused solely by the state's failure to charge the defendant properly. The defendant remains continually incarcerated in contravention of his statutory right to be tried within 70 days upon motion. In this situation, the state must bear the responsibility for filing the appropriate charge and prosecuting the case in a timely manner. Otherwise, if the state may at any time within the year prescribed by C.R. 4(C) a...

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10 cases
  • Hornaday v. State, 49A02-9301-PC-2
    • United States
    • Indiana Court of Appeals of Indiana
    • August 22, 1994 a conflict among the decisions from various districts of this Court upon this issue. 6 In Fink v. State (1984) 4th Dist.Ind.App., 469 N.E.2d 466, Fink was incarcerated upon a charge of burglary. Fink moved for a speedy trial. On the date set for trial, and before the 70-day limit had exp......
  • Payne v. State, 49A02-9405-CR-00288
    • United States
    • Indiana Court of Appeals of Indiana
    • December 8, 1995
    ...303, 306-07, trans. denied; Phelps v. State (1989) 2d Dist. Ind.App., 532 N.E.2d 619, 620-21; Fink v. State (1984) 4th Dist. Ind.App., 469 N.E.2d 466, 468-69. Payne contends, in the alternative, that if he is deemed to have "waived his right to be speedily tried because there was no motion ......
  • Stafford v. State, 81A04-0802-CR-58.
    • United States
    • Indiana Court of Appeals of Indiana
    • July 22, 2008
    ...apparent that defendant was prejudiced by the State's failure to meet all discovery deadlines imposed by the trial court); Fink v. State, 469 N.E.2d 466, 470 (Ind.Ct. App.1984) (noting that "[i]n light of the 890 N.E.2d 751 defendant's repeated insistence upon a speedy trial, the trial cour......
  • Crosby v. State, 82A01-9202-CR-28
    • United States
    • Indiana Court of Appeals of Indiana
    • August 19, 1992 tried. Other application having the effect of abrogating the rule have similarly been rejected. See Fink v. State (1984), Ind.App., 469 N.E.2d 466. The State urges that Crosby has taken a position inconsistent with his demand for a speedy trial by insisting that he have adequate time to ......
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